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    Birth Defects Epidemiology & Surveillance
    Mail Code 1964
    P.O. Box 149347
    Austin, TX 78714-9347

    Phone: 512-776-7232
    Fax: 512-776-7330


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Birth Defects Research in Texas

Publications Supported in Part by the CDC-Funded Texas Center for Birth Defects Research and Prevention and /or the Texas Birth Defects Epidemiology & Surveillance Branch, Texas Department of State Health Services.

  • Agopian A, Marengo L, Mitchell LE. Descriptive epidemiology of nonsyndromic omphalocele in Texas, 1999-2004. Am J Med Genet A. 2009;149A:2129-2133
  • Agopian AJ, Cai Y, Langlois PH, Canfield MA, Lupo PJ. Maternal residential atrazine exposure and risk for choanal atresia and stenosis in offspring. J Pediatr. 2013;162:581-586
  • Agopian AJ, Canfield MA, Olney RS, Lupo PJ, Ramadhani T, Mitchell LE, Shaw GM, Moore CA. Spina bifida subtypes and sub-phenotypes by maternal race/ethnicity in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Am J Med Genet A. 2012;158A:109–115.
  • Agopian AJ, Langlois PH, Cai Y, Canfield MA, Lupo PJ. Maternal residential atrazine exposure and gastroschisis by maternal age. Matern Child Health J. 2013;17:1768-1775
  • Agopian AJ, Langlois PH, Ramakrishnan A, Canfield MA. Epidemiologic features of male genital malformations and subtypes in Texas. Am J Med Genet A. 2014; 164a:943-949
  • Agopian AJ, Lupo PJ, Canfield MA, Langlois PH. Case-control study of maternal residential atrazine exposure and male genital malformations. Am J Med Genet A. 2013;161a:977-982
  • Agopian AJ, Lupo PJ, Canfield MA, Mitchell LE. Swimming pool use and birth defect risk. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013;209:219.e211–219.
  • Agopian AJ, Lupo PJ, Herdt-Losavio ML, Langlois PH, Rocheleau CM, Mitchell LE. Differences in folic acid use, prenatal care, smoking, and drinking in early pregnancy by occupation. Prev Med. 2012;55:341–345.
  • Agopian AJ, Lupo PJ, Tinker SC, Canfield MA, Mitchell LE. Working towards a risk prediction model for neural tube defects. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2012;94:141–146.
  • Agopian AJ, Marengo LK, Mitchell LE. Predictors of trisomy 21 in the offspring of older and younger women. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2012;94:31-35
  • Agopian AJ, Moulik M, Gupta-Malhotra M, Marengo LK, Mitchell LE. Descriptive epidemiology of non-syndromic complete atrioventricular canal defects. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2012;26:515-524
  • Agopian AJ, Tinker SC, Lupo PJ, Canfield MA, Mitchell LE. Proportion of neural tube defects attributable to known risk factors. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2013;97:42–46.
  • Agopian AJ, Waller DK, Lupo PJ, Canfield MA, Mitchell LE. A case -control study of maternal bathing habits and risk for birth defects in offspring. Environ Health. 2013;12:88.
  • Ahrens KA, Anderka MT, Feldkamp ML, Canfield MA, Mitchell AA, Werler MM, Study NBDP. Antiherpetic medication use and the risk of gastroschisis: Findings from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997–2007. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2013;27:340–345.
  • Anderson JL, Waller DK, Canfield MA, Shaw GM, Watkins ML, Werler MM. Maternal obesity, gestational diabetes, and central nervous system birth defects. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.). 2005;16:87-92
  • Archer NP, Langlois PH, Case AP, Wolfe LJ. Linking teratogen information service and birth defects registry databases to improve knowledge of birth defect status. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2006;76:126-128
  • Archer NP, Langlois PH, Suarez L, Brender J, Shanmugam R. Association of paternal age with prevalence of selected birth defects. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2007;79:27-34
  • Arth A, Tinker S, Moore C, Canfield M, Agopian A, Reefhuis J. Supplement use and other characteristics among pregnant women with a previous pregnancy affected by a neural tube defect - United States, 1997-2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015;64:6-9
  • Barber RC, Lammer EJ, Shaw GM, Greer KA, Finnell RH. The role of folate transport and metabolism in neural tube defect risk. Mol Genet Metab. 1999;66:1-9
  • Barber RC, Shalat S, Hendricks K, Joggerst B, Larsen R, Suarez L, Finnell R. Investigation of folate pathway gene polymorphisms and the incidence of neural tube defects in a Texas Hispanic population. Mol Genet Metab. 2000;70:45-52
  • Barber RC, van W, Lammer EJ, Shaw GM, Rosenquist TH, Finnell RH. Folic acid and homocysteine as risk factors for neural tube defects. Massaro EJ, ed. Folate and human development. Totwa NY: Humana Press; 2002:165-182
  • Benjamin BG, Ethen MK, Van Hook CL, Myers CA, Canfield MA. Gastroschisis prevalence in Texas 1999-2003. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2010;88:178-185
  • Bermejo-Sanchez E, Cuevas L, Amar E, Bakker MK, Bianca S, Bianchi F, Canfield MA, Castilla EE, Clementi M, Cocchi G, Feldkamp ML, Landau D, Leoncini E, Li Z, Lowry RB, Mastroiacovo P, Mutchinick OM, Rissmann A, Ritvanen A, Scarano G, Siffel C, Szabova E, Martinez-Frias ML. Amelia: A multi-center descriptive epidemiologic study in a large dataset from the international clearinghouse for birth defects surveillance and research, and overview of the literature. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 2011;157C:288-304
  • Bermejo-Sanchez E, Cuevas L, Amar E, Bianca S, Bianchi F, Botto LD, Canfield MA, Castilla EE, Clementi M, Cocchi G, Landau D, Leoncini E, Li Z, Lowry RB, Mastroiacovo P, Mutchinick OM, Rissmann A, Ritvanen A, Scarano G, Siffel C, Szabova E, Martinez-Frias ML. Phocomelia: A worldwide descriptive epidemiologic study in a large series of cases from the international clearinghouse for birth defects surveillance and research, and overview of the literature. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 2011;157C:305-320
  • Bitsko RH, Reefhuis J, Louik C, Werler M, Feldkamp ML, Waller DK, Frias J, Honein MA. Periconceptional use of weight loss products including ephedra and the association with birth defects. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2008;82:553–562.
  • Blanton SH, Cortez A, Stal S, Mulliken JB, Finnell RH, Hecht JT. Variation in irf6 contributes to nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate. Am J Med Genet A. 2005;137A:259-262
  • Blanton SH, Henry RR, Yuan Q, Mulliken JB, Stal S, Finnell RH, Hecht JT. Folate pathway and nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2011;91:50-60
  • Blom HJ, Shaw GM, den Heijer M, Finnell RH. Neural tube defects and folate: Case far from closed. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2006;7:724-731
  • Botto LD, Feldkamp ML, Amar E, Carey JC, Castilla EE, Clementi M, Cocchi G, de Walle HE, Halliday J, Leoncini E, Li Z, Lowry RB, Marengo LK, Martinez-Frias ML, Merlob P, Morgan M, Munoz LL, Rissmann A, Ritvanen A, Scarano G, Mastroiacovo P. Acardia: Epidemiologic findings and literature review from the international clearinghouse for birth defects surveillance and research. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 2011;157C:262-273
  • Botto LD, Lisi A, Bower C, Canfield MA, Dattani N, De Vigan C, De Walle H, Erickson DJ, Halliday J, Irgens LM, Lowry RB, McDonnell R, Metneki J, Poetzsch S, Ritvanen A, Robert-Gnansia E, Siffel C, Stoll C, Mastroiacovo P. Trends of selected malformations in relation to folic acid recommendations and fortification: An international assessment. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2006;76:693-705
  • Boulet SL, Yang Q, Mai C, Kirby RS, Collins JS, Robbins JM, Meyer R, Canfield MA, Mulinare J. Trends in the postfortification prevalence of spina bifida and anencephaly in the United States. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2008;82:527-532
  • Brender JD, Felkner M, Suarez L, Canfield MA, Henry JP. Maternal pesticide exposure and neural tube defects in Mexican Americans. Ann Epidemiol. 2010;20:16-22
  • Brender JD, Kelley KE, Werler MM, Langlois PH, Suarez L, Canfield MA. Prevalence and patterns of nitrosatable drug use among U.S. Women during early pregnancy. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2011;91:258–264. Funded by NIH, NIEHS.
  • Brender JD, Olive JM, Felkner M, Suarez L, Marckwardt W, Hendricks KA. Dietary nitrites and nitrates, nitrosatable drugs, and neural tube defects. Epidemiology. 2004;15:330-336
  • Brender JD, Shinde MU, Zhan FB, Gong X, Langlois PH. Maternal residential proximity to chlorinated solvent emissions and birth defects in offspring: A case-control study. Environ Health. 2014;13:96
  • Brender JD, Suarez L, Felkner M, Gilani Z, Stinchcomb D, Moody K, Henry J, Hendricks K. Maternal exposure to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury and neural tube defects in offspring. Environ Res. 2006;101:132-139
  • Brender JD, Suarez L, Hendricks KA, Baetz RA, Larsen R. Parental occupation and neural tube defect-affected pregnancies among Mexican Americans. J Occup Environ Med. 2002;44:650-656
  • Brender JD, Suarez L, Langlois PH, Steck M, Zhan FB, Moody K. Are maternal occupation and residential proximity to industrial sources of pollution related? J Occup Environ Med. 2008;50:834-839
  • Brender JD, Suarez L, Langlois PH. Parental occupation, Hispanic ethnicity, and risk of selected congenital malformations in offspring. Ethn Dis. 2008;18:218-224
  • Brender JD, Suarez L, Langlois PH. Validity of parental work information on the birth certificate. BMC Public Health. 2008;8:95
  • Brender JD, Werler MM, Kelley KE, Vuong AM, Shinde MU, Zheng Q, Huber JC, Jr., Sharkey JR, Griesenbeck JS, Romitti PA, Langlois PH, Suarez L, Canfield MA, The National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Nitrosatable drug exposure during early pregnancy and neural tube defects in offspring: National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2011;174:1286–1295. Funded by NIH, NIEHS.
  • Brender JD, Werler MM, Shinde MU, Vuong AM, Kelley KE, Huber JC, Jr., Sharkey JR, Griesenbeck JS, Romitti PA, Malik S, Suarez L, Langlois PH, Canfield MA. Nitrosatable drug exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy and selected congenital malformations. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2012;94:701–713. Funded by NIH, NIEHS.
  • Brender JD, Weyer PJ, Romitti PA, Mohanty BP, Shinde MU, Vuong AM, Sharkey JR, Dwivedi D, Horel SA, Kantamneni J, Huber Jr JC, Zheng Q, Werler MM, Kelley KE, Griesenbeck JS, Zhan FB, Langlois PH, Suarez L, Canfield MA. Prenatal nitrate intake from drinking water and selected birth defects in offspring of participants in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Environ Health Perspect. 2013;1083:121–129. Funded by NIH, NIEHS.
  • Brender JD, Zhan FB, Langlois PH, Suarez L, Scheuerle A. Residential proximity to waste sites and industrial facilities and chromosomal anomalies in offspring. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2008;211:50-58
  • Brender JD, Zhan FB, Suarez L, Langlois PH, Gilani Z, Delima I, Moody K. Linking environmental hazards and birth defects data. Int J Occup Environ Health. 2006;12:126-133
  • Brender JD, Zhan FB, Suarez L, Langlois PH, Moody K. Maternal residential proximity to waste sites and industrial facilities and oral clefts in offspring. J Occup Environ Med. 2006;48:565-572
  • Brown KS, Cook M, Hoess K, Whitehead AS, Mitchell LE. Evidence that the risk of spina bifida is influenced by genetic variation at the nos3 locus.  Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2004;70:101-106
  • Browne ML, Rasmussen SA, Hoyt AT, Waller DK, Druschel CM, Caton AR, Canfield MA, Lin AE, Carmichael SL, Romitti PA. Maternal thyroid disease, thyroid medication use, and selected birth defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2009;85:621–628.
  • Canfield M, Przybyla S, Case A, Ramadhani T, Suarez L, Dyer J. Folic acid awareness and supplementation among Texas women of childbearing age. Prev Med. 2006;43:27-30
  • Canfield MA, Anderson JL, Waller DK, Palmer SE, Kaye CI. Folic acid awareness and use among women with a history of a neural tube defect pregnancy - Texas, 2000-2001. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2002;51:16-19
  • Canfield MA, Collins JS, Botto LD, Williams LJ, Mai CT, Kirby RS, Pearson K, Devine O, Mulinare J. Changes in the birth prevalence of selected birth defects after grain fortification with folic acid in the United States: Findings from a multi-state population-based study. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2005;73:679-689
  • Canfield MA, Honein MA, Yuskiv N, Xing J, Mai CT, Collins JS, Devine O, Petrini J, Ramadhani TA, Hobbs CA, Kirby RS. National estimates and race/ethnic-specific variation of selected birth defects in the United States, 1999-2001. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2006;76:747-756
  • Canfield MA, Langlois PH, Nguyen LM, Scheuerle AE. Epidemiologic features and clinical subgroups of anotia/microtia in Texas. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2009;85:905-913
  • Canfield MA, Mai CT, Wang Y, O’Halloran A, Marengo LK, Olney RS, Borger CL, Rutkowski R, Fornoff J, Irwin N, Copeland G, Flood TJ, Meyer RE, Rickard R, Alverson C, Sweatlock J, Kirby RS, Network ft. NBDP. The association between race/ethnicity and major birth defects in the United States, 1999-2007. Am J Public Health. 2014;104:e14-e23
  • Canfield MA, Marengo L, Ramadhani TA, Suarez L, Brender JD, Scheuerle A. The prevalence and predictors of anencephaly and spina bifida in Texas. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2009;23:41-50
  • Canfield MA, Przybyla SM, Case AP, Ramadhani T, Suarez L, Dyer J. Folic acid awareness and supplementation among Texas women of childbearing age. Prev med. United States; 2006:27-30.
  • Canfield MA, Ramadhani TA, Langlois PH, Waller DK. Residential mobility patterns and exposure misclassification in epidemiologic studies of birth defects. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2006;16:538-543
  • Canfield MA, Ramadhani TA, Shaw GM, Carmichael SL, Waller DK, Mosley BS, Royle MH, Olney RS. Anencephaly and spina bifida among Hispanics: Maternal, sociodemographic, and acculturation factors in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2009;85:637–646.
  • Carmichael SL, Shaw GM, Yang W, Laurent C, Herring A, Royle MH, Canfield MA. Correlates of intake of folic acid-containing supplements among pregnant women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006;194:203–210.
  • Carozza SE, Langlois PH, Miller EA, Canfield M. Are children with birth defects at higher risk of childhood cancers? Am J Epidemiol. 2012;175:1217-1224
  • Case AP, Canfield MA, Barnett A, Raimondo P, Drummond-Borg M, Livingston J, Kowalik J. Proximity of pediatric genetic services to children with birth defects in Texas. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2008;82:795-798
  • Case AP, Canfield MA. Methods for developing useful estimates of the costs associated with birth defects. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2009;85:920-924
  • Case AP, Colpitts LR, Langlois PH, Scheuerle AE. Prenatal diagnosis and cesarean section in a large, population-based birth defects registry. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012;25:395-402
  • Case AP, Mitchell LE. Prevalence and patterns of choanal atresia and choanal stenosis among pregnancies in Texas, 1999-2004. Am J Med Genet A. 2011;155A:786-791
  • Case AP, Ramadhani TA, Canfield MA, Beverly L, Wood R. Folic acid supplementation among diabetic, overweight, or obese women of childbearing age. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2007;36:335-341
  • Case AP, Ramadhani TA, Canfield MA, Wicklund CA. Awareness and attitudes regarding prenatal testing among Texas women of childbearing age. J Genet Couns. 2007;16:655-661
  • Case AP, Royle M, Scheuerle AE, Carmichael SL, Moffitt K, Ramadhani T. Birth defects, causal attributions, and ethnicity in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. J Genet Couns. 2014;23:860–873.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Improved national prevalence estimates for 18 selected major birth defects--United States, 1999-2001. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2006;54:1301-1305
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Preconception health indicators among women--Texas, 2002-2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2012;61:550-555
  • Chandler AL, Hobbs CA, Mosley BS, Berry RJ, Canfield MA, Qi YP, Siega-Riz AM, Shaw GM. Neural tube defects and maternal intake of micronutrients related to one-carbon metabolism or antioxidant activity. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2012;94:864–874.
  • Chiang PW, Spector E, Scheuerle A. A case of Asian Indian oca3 patient. Am J Med Genet A. 2009;149A:1578-1580
  • Chiquet BT, Blanton SH, Burt A, Ma D, Stal S, Mulliken JB, Hecht JT. Variation in wnt genes is associated with non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:2212-2218
  • Chiquet BT, Henry R, Burt A, Mulliken JB, Stal S, Blanton SH, Hecht JT. Nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate: Crispld genes and the folate gene pathway connection. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2011;91:44-49
  • Collins JS, Canfield MA, Pearson K, Kirby RS, Case AP, Mai CT, Major J, Mulinare J. Public health projects for preventing the recurrence of neural tube defects in the United States. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2009;85:935-938
  • Correa A, Gilboa SM, Besser LM, Botto LD, Moore CA, Hobbs CA, Cleves MA, Riehle-Colarusso TJ, Waller DK, Reece EA. Diabetes mellitus and birth defects. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;199: 199(3):237-e1.
  • Correa-Villasenor A, Satten GA, Rolka H, Langlois P, Devine O. Random error and undercounting in birth defects surveillance data: Implications for inference. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2003;67:610-616
  • Davis EM, Peck JD, Thompson D, Wild RA, Langlois P. Maternal diabetes and renal agenesis/dysgenesis. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2010;88:722-727
  • Dawson AL1, Razzaghi H, Arth A, Canfield MA, Parker SE, Reefhuis J; National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Maternal exposures in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study: Time trends of selected exposures.  Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2015 Apr 17. doi: 10.1002/bdra.23377. [Epub ahead of print].
  • Defant J, Gambello MJ, Monga M, Langlois PH, Noblin SJ, Vidaeff AC. Fetal trisomy 21 and the risk of preeclampsia. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2010;23:55-59
  • Desrosiers TA, Lawson CC, Meyer RE, Richardson DB, Daniels JL, Waters MA, van Wijngaarden E, Langlois PH, Romitti PA, Correa A, Olshan A. Maternal occupational exposure to organic solvents during early pregnancy and risks of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts. Occup Environ Med. 2012;69:493–499.
  • Duong HT, Hoyt AT, Carmichael SL, Gilboa SM, Canfield MA, Case A, McNeese ML, Waller DK. Is maternal parity an independent risk factor for birth defects? Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2012;94:230–236.
  • Duong HT, Shahrukh Hashmi S, Ramadhani T, Canfield MA, Scheuerle A, Kim Waller D. Maternal use of hot tub and major structural birth defects. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2011;91:836–841.
  • Ethen MK, Canfield MA, Trevino J. Pilot test of prenatal surveillance for birth defects in South Texas. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2007;79:788-791
  • Ethen MK, Canfield MA. Impact of including elective pregnancy terminations before 20 weeks gestation on birth defect rates. Teratology. 2002;66 Suppl 1:S32-35
  • Ethen MK, Ramadhani TA, Scheuerle AE, Canfield MA, Wyszynski DF, Druschel CM, Romitti PA. Alcohol consumption by women before and during pregnancy. Matern Child Health J. 2009;13:274–285.
  • Etheredge AJ, Christensen K, Del Junco D, Murray JC, Mitchell LE. Evaluation of two methods for assessing gene-environment interactions using data from the danish case-control study of facial clefts. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2005;73:541-546
  • Feldkamp ML, Botto LD, Amar E, Bakker MK, Bermejo-Sanchez E, Bianca S, Canfield MA, Castilla EE, Clementi M, Csaky-Szunyogh M, Leoncini E, Li Z, Lowry RB, Mastroiacovo P, Merlob P, Morgan M, Mutchinick OM, Rissmann A, Ritvanen A, Siffel C, Carey JC. Cloacal exstrophy: An epidemiologic study from the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 2011;157C:333-343
  • Felkner M, Hendricks K, Suarez L, Waller DK. Diarrhea: A new risk factor for neural tube defects? Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2003;67:504-508
  • Felkner M, Suarez L, Canfield MA, Brender JD, Sun Q. Maternal serum homocysteine and risk for neural tube defects in a Texas-Mexico border population. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2009;85:574-581
  • Felkner M, Suarez L, Hendricks K, Larsen R. Implementation and outcomes of recommended folic acid supplementation in Mexican-American women with prior neural tube defect-affected pregnancies. Prev Med. 2005;40:867-871
  • Felkner M, Suarez L, Liszka B, Brender JD, Canfield M. Neural tube defects, micronutrient deficiencies, and helicobacter pylori: A new hypothesis. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2007;79:617-621
  • Felkner MM, Suarez L, Brender J, Scaife B, Hendricks K. Iron status indicators in women with prior neural tube defect-affected pregnancies. Matern Child Health J. 2005;9:421-428
  • Felkner MM, Suarez L, Hendricks KA, Gunter EW. Blood folate levels on the Texas-Mexico border. Tex Med. 2002;98:58-60
  • Finnell RH, Greer KA, Barber RC, Piedrahita JA. Neural tube and craniofacial defects with special emphasis on folate pathway genes. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 1998;9:38-53
  • Finnell RH, Mitchell LE. Neural tube defects.  In Rimoin DL, Connor JM, Pyeritz RE, Korf  BF (eds.), Emery and Rimoin’s principles and practice of medical genetics (5th ed.).  Vol 3. Pp.2648-2660. 2006
  • Finnell RH, Shaw GM, Lammer EJ, Rosenquist TH. Gene-nutrient interactions: Importance of folic acid and vitamin b12 during early embryogenesis. Food Nutr Bull. 2008;29:S86-98; discussion S99-100
  • Fixler DE, Nembhard WN, Salemi JL, Ethen MK, Canfield MA. Mortality in first 5 years in infants with functional single ventricle born in Texas, 1996 to 2003. Circulation. 2010;121:644-650
  • Fixler DE, Nembhard WN, Xu P, Ethen MK, Canfield MA. Effect of acculturation and distance from cardiac center on congenital heart disease mortality. Pediatrics. 2012;129:1118-1124
  • Fixler DE, Xu P, Nembhard WN, Ethen MK, Canfield MA. Age at referral and mortality from critical congenital heart disease. Pediatrics. 2014;134:e98-105
  • Forrester MB, Canfield MA. Evaluation of a system for linking birth defects registry records and vital records.  J Registry Manag. 2000;27:93-97
  • Gallaway MS, Waller DK, Canfield MA, Scheuerle AE. The association between use of spermicides or male condoms and major structural birth defects. Contraception. 2009;80:422–429.
  • Getz KD, Anderka MT, Werler MM, Case AP. Short interpregnancy interval and gastroschisis risk in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2012;94:714–720.
  • Gilboa SM, Correa A, Botto LD, Rasmussen SA, Waller DK, Hobbs CA, Cleves MA, Riehle-Colarusso TJ. Association between prepregnancy body mass index and congenital heart defects. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010;202:51. e1-51.e10.
  • Gilboa SM, Mendola P, Olshan AF, Harness C, Loomis D, Langlois PH, Savitz DA, Herring AH. Comparison of residential geocoding methods in population-based study of air quality and birth defects. Environ Res. 2006;101:256-262
  • Gilboa SM, Mendola P, Olshan AF, Langlois PH, Savitz DA, Loomis D, Herring AH, Fixler DE. Relation between ambient air quality and selected birth defects, seven county study, Texas, 1997-2000. Am J Epidemiol. 2005;162:238-252
  • Gilboa SM, Mendola P, Olshan AF, Savitz DA, Herring AH, Loomis D, Langlois PH, Keating K. Characteristics that predict locating and interviewing mothers identified by a state birth defects registry and vital records. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2006;76:60-65
  • Graham A, Brender JD, Sharkey JR, Zhu L, Felkner M, Suarez L, Canfield MA. Dietary methionine intake and neural tube defects in Mexican-American women. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2010;88:451-457
  • Green RF, Devine O, Crider KS, Olney RS, Archer N, Olshan AF, Shapira SK. Association of paternal age and risk for major congenital anomalies from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997 to 2004. Ann Epidemiol. 2010;20:241–249.
  • Griesenbeck JS, Brender JD, Sharkey JR, Steck MD, Huber JC, Jr., Rene AA, McDonald TJ, Romitti PA, Canfield MA, Langlois PH, Suarez L. Maternal characteristics associated with the dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines in women of child-bearing age: A cross-sectional study. Environ Health. 2010;9:10. Funded by NIH, NIEHS.
  • Griesenbeck JS, Steck MD, Huber JC, Jr., Sharkey JR, Rene AA, Brender JD. Development of estimates of dietary nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines for use with the Short Willet Food Frequency Questionnaire. Nutr J. 2009;8:16. Funded by NIH, NIEHS.
  • Hashmi SS, Canfield MA, Marengo L, Moffitt KB, Belmont JW, Freedenberg D, Tanksley SM, Lupo PJ. The association between neonatal thyroxine and craniosynostosis, Texas, 2004-2007. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2012;94:1004-1009
  • Hashmi SS, Gallaway MS, Waller DK, Langlois PH, Hecht JT. Maternal fever during early pregnancy and the risk of oral clefts. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2010;88:186–194.
  • Hashmi SS, Waller DK, Langlois P, Canfield MA, Hecht JT. Prevalence of nonsyndromic oral clefts in Texas: 1995-1999. Am J Med Genet A. 2005;134:368-372
  • Hecht JT, Ester A, Scott A, Wise CA, Iovannisci DM, Lammer EJ, Langlois PH, Blanton SH. Nat2 variation and idiopathic talipes equinovarus (clubfoot). Am J Med Genet A. 2007;143A:2285-2291
  • Heck AL, Bray MS, Scott A, Blanton SH, Hecht JT. Variation in casp10 gene is associated with idiopathic talipes equinovarus. J Pediatr Orthop. 2005;25:598-602
  • Hendricks KA, Larsen R, Suarez L. Neural tube defect surveillance and folic acid intervention-Texas-Mexico border, 1993-1998. MMWR. 2000;49:1-4
  • Hendricks KA, Nuno OM, Suarez L, Larsen R. Effects of hyperinsulinemia and obesity on risk of neural tube defects among Mexican Americans. Epidemiology. 2001;12:630-635
  • Hendricks KA, Simpson JS, Larsen RD. Neural tube defects along the Texas-Mexico border, 1993-1995. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;149:1119-1127
  • Hendricks KA. Fumonisins and neural tube defects in South Texas. Epidemiology. 1999;10:198-200
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  • Reefhuis J, Gilboa SM, Anderka M, Browne ML, Feldkamp ML, Hobbs CA, Jenkins MM, Langlois PH, Newsome KB, Olshan AF, Romitti PA, Shapira SK, Shaw GM, Tinker SC, Honein MA; National Birth Defects Prevention Study. The national birth defects prevention study: A review of the methods. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2015 Jun 2. doi: 10.1002/bdra.23384. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Rosenquist TH, Finnell RH. Another key role for the cardiac neural crest in heart development. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;292:H1225-1226
  • Scheuerle A, Heller K, Elder F. Complete trisomy 1q with mosaic y;1 translocation: A recurrent aneuploidy presenting diagnostic dilemmas. Am J Med Genet A. 2005;138A:166-170
  • Scheuerle A, Vannappagari VX, Miller MK. Measurements of birth defect prevalence: Which is most useful as a comparator group for pharmaceutical pregnancy registries? Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2009;85:611-620
  • Scheuerle A. Clinical differentiation of patent foramen ovale and secundum atrial septal defect: A survey of pediatric cardiologists in Dallas, Texas, USA. J Registry Manag. 2011;38:4-8
  • Sheu SU, Ethen MK, Scheuerle AE, Langlois PH. Investigation into an increase in plagiocephaly in Texas from 1999 to 2007. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011;165:708-713
  • Shin M, Kucik JE, Siffel C, Lu C, Shaw GM, Canfield MA, Correa A. Improved survival among children with spina bifida in the United States. J Pediatr. 2012;161:1132-1137
  • Shinde MU, Vuong AM, Brender JD, Werler MM, Kelley KE, Huber JC, Jr., Sharkey JR, Zheng Q, Suarez L, Langlois PH, Canfield MA, Romitti PA, Malik S. Prenatal exposure to nitrosatable drugs, vitamin c, and risk of selected birth defects. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2013;97(8):515 –531. Funded by NIH, NIEHS.
  • Siffel C, Correa A, Amar E, Bakker MK, Bermejo-Sanchez E, Bianca S, Castilla EE, Clementi M, Cocchi G, Csaky-Szunyogh M, Feldkamp ML, Landau D, Leoncini E, Li Z, Lowry RB, Marengo LK, Mastroiacovo P, Morgan M, Mutchinick OM, Pierini A, Rissmann A, Ritvanen A, Scarano G, Szabova E, Olney RS. Bladder exstrophy: An epidemiologic study from the international clearinghouse for birth defects surveillance and research, and an overview of the literature. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 2011;157C:321-332
  • Simeone RM, Rasmussen SA, Mei JV, Dollard SC, Frias JL, Shaw GM, Canfield MA, Meyer RE, Jones JL, Lorey F, Honein MA. A pilot study using residual newborn dried blood spots to assess the potential role of cytomegalovirus and toxoplasma gondii in the etiology of congenital hydrocephalus. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2013
  • Simmons K, Hashmi S, Scheuerle A, Canfield M, Hecht J. Mortality in babies with achondroplasia: Revisited.  Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2014; 100:247-249
  • Simpson MA, Scheuerle A, Hurst J, Patton MA, Stewart H, Crosby AH. Mutations in fam20c also identified in non-lethal osteosclerotic bone dysplasia. Clin Genet. 2009;75:271-276
  • Smith LB, Reich BJ, Herring AH, Langlois PH, Fuentes M.  Multilevel quantile function modeling with application to birth outcomes.  Biometrics 2015 Mar 11.  [Epub ahead of print]
  • Sommer A, Blanton SH, Weymouth K, Alvarez C, Richards BS, Barnes D, Hecht JT. Smoking, the xenobiotic pathway, and clubfoot. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2011;91:20-28
  • Spiegelstein O, Mitchell LE, Merriweather MY, Wicker NJ, Zhang Q, Lammer EJ, Finnell RH. Embryonic development of folate binding protein-1 (folbp1) knockout mice: Effects of the chemical form, dose, and timing of maternal folate supplementation. Dev Dyn. 2004;231:221-231
  • Stingone J, Luben T, Daniels J, Fuentes M, Richardson D, Aylsworth A, Herring A, Anderka M, Botto L, Correa A. Maternal exposure to criteria air pollutants and congenital heart defects in offspring: Results from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Environ Health Perspect. 2014;122(8): 863–72.
  • Strahan JE, Canfield MA, Drummond-Borg LM, Neill SU. Ethnic and gender patterns for five congenital disorders in Texas from 1992 through 1998. Tex Med. 2002;98:80-86
  • Suarez L, Brender JD, Langlois PH, Zhan FB, Moody K. Maternal exposures to hazardous waste sites and industrial facilities and risk of neural tube defects in offspring. Ann Epidemiol. 2007;17:772-777
  • Suarez L, Cardarelli K, Hendricks K. Maternal stress, social support, and risk of neural tube defects among Mexican Americans. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.). 2003;14:612-616
  • Suarez L, Felkner M, Brender JD, Canfield M, Hendricks K. Maternal exposures to cigarette smoke, alcohol, and street drugs and neural tube defect occurrence in offspring. Matern Child Health J. 2008;12:394-401
  • Suarez L, Felkner M, Brender JD, Canfield M, Zhu H, Hendricks KA. Neural tube defects on the Texas-Mexico border: What we've learned in the 20 years since the Brownsville cluster. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2012;94:882-892
  • Suarez L, Felkner M, Brender JD, Canfield MA. Dieting to lose weight and occurrence of neural tube defects in offspring of Mexican-American women. Matern Child Health J. 2012;16:844-849
  • Suarez L, Felkner M, Hendricks K. The effect of fever, febrile illnesses, and heat exposures on the risk of neural tube defects in a Texas-Mexico border population. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2004;70:815-819
  • Suarez L, Gilani Z, Felkner M, Brender J, Henry J, Hendricks K. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and risk of neural tube defects in a Mexican American population. Int J Occup Environ Health. 2005;11:234-238
  • Suarez L, Hendricks K, Felkner M, Gunter E. Maternal serum b12 levels and risk for neural tube defects in the Texas-Mexico border population. Ann Epidemiol. 2003;13:81-88
  • Suarez L, Hendricks KA, Cooper SP, Sweeney AM, Hardy RJ, Larsen RD. Neural tube defects among Mexican Americans living on the us-mexico border: Effects of folic acid and dietary folate. Am J Epidemiol. 2000;152:1017-1023
  • Suarez L, Ramadhani T, Felkner M, Canfield MA, Brender JD, Romitti PA, Sun L. Maternal smoking, passive tobacco smoke, and neural tube defects. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2011;91:29–33.
  • Swartz M, Cai Y, Chan W, Symanski E, Mitchell L, Danysh H, Langlois P, Lupo P. Air toxics and birth defects: A bayesian hierarchical approach to evaluate multiple pollutants and spina bifida. Environ Health. 2015;14:16
  • Taparia S, Gelineau-van Waes J, Rosenquist TH, Finnell RH. Importance of folate-homocysteine homeostasis during early embryonic development. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2007;45:1717-1727
  • Vendola C, Canfield M, Daiger SP, Gambello M, Hashmi SS, King T, Noblin SJ, Waller DK, Hecht JT. Survival of Texas infants born with trisomies 21, 18, and 13. Am J Med Genet A. 2010;152A:360-366
  • Vinikoor-Imler LC, Stewart TG, Luben TJ, Davis JA, Langlois PH.  An exploratory analysis of the relationship between ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations during early pregnancy and selected birth defects in Texas.  Environmental Pollution 202: 1-6, 2015.
  • Volcik K, Zhu H, Finnell RH, Shaw G, Canfield MA, Lammer EJ. Evaluation of the cited2 gene and risk for spina bifida and congenital heart defects. Am J Med Genet. 2003;126A:324-325
  • Volcik K, Zhu H, Finnell RH, Shaw G, Canfield MA, Lammer EJ. Evaluation of the jumonji gene and risk for spina bifida and congenital heart defects. Am J Med Genet. 2004;126A:215-217
  • Vuong AM, Shinde MU, Brender JD, Shipp EM, Huber JC, Jr., Zheng Q, McDonald TJ, Sharkey JR, Hoyt AT, Werler MM, Kelley KE, Langlois PH, Canfield MA. Nitrosatable drug exposure during pregnancy and preterm and small-for-gestational-age births. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2014;29:60–71.
  • Waller DK, Correa A, Vo TM, Wang Y, Hobbs C, Langlois PH, Pearson K, Romitti PA, Shaw GM, Hecht JT. The population-based prevalence of achondroplasia and thanatophoric dysplasia in selected regions of the us. Am J Med Genet A. 2008;146A:2385-2389
  • Waller DK, Dawson TE. Relationship between maternal obesity and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program. 2005;55:197-207; discussion 207-111
  • Waller DK, Gallaway MS, Taylor LG, Ramadhani TA, Canfield MA, Scheuerle A, Hernandez-Diaz S, Louik C, Correa A. Use of oral contraceptives in pregnancy and major structural birth defects in offspring. Epidemiology. 2010;21:232–239.
  • Waller DK, Keddie AM, Canfield MA, Scheuerle AE. Do infants with major congenital anomalies have an excess of macrosomia? Teratology. 2001;64:311-317
  • Waller DK, Keddie AM, Canfield MA, Scheuerle AE. Sex ratios in infants with congenital anomalies. Teratology. 2002;66:60-60
  • Waller DK, Pujazon MA, Canfield MA, Scheuerle AE, Byrne JL. Frequency of prenatal diagnosis of birth defects in Houston, Galveston and the lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas 1995. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2000;15:348-354
  • Waller DK, Shaw GM, Rasmussen SA, Hobbs CA, Canfield MA, Siega-Riz A-M, Gallaway MS, Correa A. Prepregnancy obesity as a risk factor for structural birth defects.  Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007;161:745–750.
  • Waller DK, Tita AT, Annegers JF. Rates of twinning before and after fortification of foods in the U.S. with folic acid, Texas, 1996 to 1998. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2003;17:378-383
  • Waller DK, Tita AT, Werler MM, Mitchell AA. Association between prepregnancy maternal body mass index and the risk of having an infant with a congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2003;67:73-76
  • Wang J, Waller DK, Hwang LY, Taylor LG, Canfield MA. Prevalence of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in Texas, 1999-2002. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2008;82:763-767
  • Wang Y, Liu G, Canfield MA, Mai CT, Gilboa SM, Meyer RE, Anderka M, Copeland GE, Kucik JE, Nembhard WN, Kirby RS. Racial/ethnic differences in United States children with birth defects: A population-based study. J Pediatr. 2015 Apr;166(4):819-26.
  • Weedn AE, Mosley BS, Cleves MA, Waller DK, Canfield MA, Correa A, Hobbs CA. Maternal reporting of prenatal ultrasounds among women in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2014;100:4–12.
  • Wen S, Ethen M, Langlois PH, Mitchell LE. Prevalence of encephalocele in Texas, 1999-2002. Am J Med Genet A. 2007;143A:2150-2155
  • Wen S, Lu W, Zhu H, Yang W, Shaw GM, Lammer EJ, Islam A, Finnell RH. Genetic polymorphisms in the thioredoxin 2 (txn2) gene and risk for spina bifida. Am J Med Genet A. 2009;149A:155-160
  • Wen S, Zhu H, Lu W, Mitchell LE, Shaw GM, Lammer EJ, Finnell RH. Planar cell polarity pathway genes and risk for spina bifida. Am J Med Genet A. 2010;152A:299-304
  • Weyer PJ, Brender JD, Romitti PA, Kantamneni JR, Crawford D, Sharkey JR, Shinde M, Horel SA, Vuong AM, Langlois PH. Assessing bottled water nitrate concentrations to evaluate total drinking water nitrate exposure and risk of birth defects. J Water Health. 2014;12:755–762.
  • Williams J, Mai CT, Mulinare J, Isenburg J, Flood TJ, Ethen M, Frohnert B, Kirby RS. Updated estimates of neural tube defects prevented by mandatory folic acid fortification - United States, 1995-2011. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015;64:1-5 [in press]
  • Yang J, Carmichael SL, Canfield MA, Song J, Shaw GM, National Birth Defects Prevention S. Socioeconomic status in relation to selected birth defects in a large multicentered us case-control study. Am J Epidemiol. 2008;167:145–154.
  • Yazdy MM, Werler MM, Anderka M, Langlois PH, Vieira VM. Spatial analysis of gastroschisis in Massachusetts and Texas. Ann Epidemiol. 2014;25:7-14
  • Yazdy MM, Werler MM, Feldkamp ML, Shaw GM, Mosley BS, Vieira VM, National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Spatial analysis of gastroschisis in the national birth defects prevention study.  Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2015 Apr 6. doi: 10.1002/bdra.23375. [Epub ahead of print].
  • Yoon PW, Rasmussen SA, Lynberg MC, Moore CA, Anderka M, Carmichael SL, Costa P, Druschel C, Hobbs CA, Romitti PA, Langlois PH, Edmonds LD. The National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Public Health Rep. 2001;116 Suppl 1:32–40.
  • Zhan FB, Brender JD, De Lima I, Suarez L, Langlois PH. Match rate and positional accuracy of two geocoding methods for epidemiologic research. Ann Epidemiol. 2006;16:842-849
  • Zhan FB, Brender JD, Han Y, Suarez L, Langlois PH. Gis-epilink: A spatial search tool for linking environmental and health data. J Med Syst. 2006;30:405-412
  • Zhu H, Junker WM, Finnell RH, Brown S, Shaw GM, Lammer EJ, Canfield MA, Hendricks K. Lack of association between zic2 and zic3 genes and the risk of neural tube defects (ntds) in Hispanic populations. Am J Med Genet. 2003;116A:414-415
  • Zhu H, Kartiko S, Finnell RH. Importance of gene-environment interactions in the etiology of selected birth defects. Clin Genet. 2009;75:409-423
  • Zhu H, Wicker NJ, Shaw GM, Lammer EJ, Hendricks K, Suarez L, Canfield MA, Finnell RH. Homocysteine remethylation enzyme polymorphisms and increased risks for neural tube defects. Mol Genet Metab. 2003;78:216-221
  • Zhu H, Wicker NJ, Volcik K, Zhang J, Shaw GM, Lammer EJ, Suarez L, Canfield M, Finnell RH. Promoter haplotype combinations for the human pdgfra gene are associated with risk of neural tube defects. Mol Genet Metab. 2004;81:127-132

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