A total of 152,374 Texas residents died in 2004. The leading cause of death, diseases of the heart, accounted for 26.3 percent of those deaths, while the second most common cause of death, malignant neoplasms (cancer), accounted for 22.2 percent. Cerebrovascular diseases, accidents, and chronic lower respiratory diseases, ranked third, fourth, and fifth, respectively. Together, these five leading causes of death represented 65.2 percent of all deaths in 2004.
The number of infant deaths decreased to 2,398 deaths in 2004 compared to 2,483 deaths in 2003. The infant mortality rate decreased to 6.3 infant deaths per 1,000 live births. Fetal deaths increased from 2,258 in 2003 to 2,286 in 2004 for a fetal death ratio of 6.0 fetal deaths per 1,000 live births for both years. Forty seven women died in 2004 as a result of pregnancy or childbearing for a maternal mortality rate of 12.3 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births.
Years of potential life lost (YPLL), a measure of premature mortality, is the sum of years lost by persons who die before age 65 (see Technical Appendix). The YPLL by Texans decreased from 909,333 in 2003 to 891,483 in 2004. Accidents, malignant neoplasms, and heart disease continued to be the top three causes of premature mortality in Texas.
Leading Causes of Death
The order of the top three leading causes of death has remained the same since 1979. Heart disease claimed 40,091 lives (41,654 in 2003) and continued to be the leading cause of death followed by malignant neoplasms (cancer) with 33,836 deaths (33,782 in 2003). Diseases of the heart and malignant neoplasms have been the first and second leading causes of death in Texas and the nation since 1950.
Cerebrovascular diseases ranked third with 9,831 deaths, compared to 10,286 in 2003. The top three leading causes of death, diseases of the heart, malignant neoplasms, and cerebrovascular diseases, accounted for 55.0 percent of all Texas resident deaths in 2004. Accidents and adverse effects with 8,270 deaths (8,341 in 2003) and chronic lower respiratory diseases with 7,387 deaths (7,548 in 2003) rounded out the top five leading causes of death.
The sixth leading cause was diabetes mellitus with 5,426 deaths in 2004 (5,663 in 2003) and the number of deaths due to Alzheimer's disease was 4,331 in 2004 (4,012 in 2003). Influenza and pneumonia was the eighth leading cause with 3,198 deaths in 2004. Nephritis and related diseases were the ninth leading cause with 2,557 deaths in 2004. Septicemia was the tenth leading cause with 2,420 deaths in 2004.
Although homicide is no longer one of the ten leading causes of death among all Texas residents, it is the eigth leading cause among Hispanics and blacks. (See Table 16 for the leading causes of death by race/ethnicity.)
The majority of deaths (30.2 percent) in 2004 to residents ages 1 through 44 were due to accidents. Malignant neoplasms were responsible for 12.1 percent of all deaths to this age group and diseases of the heart claimed the lives of another 10.0 percent.
Beginning at age 45, accidents play a less significant role in total deaths; only 9.5 percent of all deaths to individuals 45-54 were due to accidents. However, diseases of the heart and malignant neoplasms were responsible for 48.1 percent of the deaths to this age group. Deaths due to chronic conditions (diseases of the heart, malignant neoplasms, cerebrovascular diseases, chronic lower respiratory diseases, and diabetes mellitus) were the major causes of death in individuals 55 years and older, accounting for 69.3 percent of deaths to this age group.
Although males represented slightly less than half (49.9 percent) of the Texas population in 2004, they accounted for 60.7 percent of all deaths to persons 1 through 74 years of age. Much of this difference is due to the greater likelihood of males dying at younger ages from external causes (such as accidents, homicide, and suicide) and HIV infection (see Table 17).
There were 2,398 infant deaths to Texas residents in 2004 for an infant mortality rate of 6.3 infant deaths per 1,000 live births (see Table 29). The black infant mortality rate (12.8) continued to be considerably greater than the rate of whites (5.6) and Hispanics (5.6).
Congenital anomalies were responsible for 22.1 percent of all infant deaths and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) claimed another 8.9 percent. Disorders related to length of gestation and fetal malnutrition claimed 14.8 percent of infant deaths and accidents claimed 3.1 percent of infant deaths. (See Table 31 for the selected causes of infant death among Texas residents.)
The majority (1,574; 65.6 percent) of infant deaths took place during the first 27 days of life (neonatal period), and the rate of neonatal deaths in Texas was 4.1 per 1,000 live births (see Table 30). Of all neonatal deaths, 25.0 percent were due to congenital malformations, deformations, and chromosomal abnormalities. Disorders relating to length of gestation and fetal malnutrition also accounted for 22.2 percent of all neonatal deaths. (See Table 32 for the selected causes of neonatal death among Texas residents).
Fetal Deaths and Perinatal Mortality
In Texas, a fetal death is the death of a product of conception before complete expulsion or extraction from its mother. It is required to be registered with the Vital Statistics Unit as a fetal death for any fetus weighing 350 grams or more, or if the weight is unknown, a fetus aged 20 weeks or more. However, all reported fetal deaths, regardless of weight or length of gestation, are included in this annual report. There were 2,286 fetal deaths to Texas residents in 2004. The fetal death ratio was 6.0 fetal deaths per 1,000 live births in 2004, which was the same as in 2003.
Perinatal mortality includes fetal and neonatal deaths. The perinatal mortality rate was 9.7
per 1,000 fetal deaths and live births in 2004 (10.0 in 2003). (See Table 28 for fetal and perinatal mortality figures.)
In 2004, 47 women died as a result of pregnancy or childbearing, for a maternal mortality rate of 12.3 per 100,000 live births. The maternal mortality rate for black women of 38.0 continues to be more than double the state value. White (excluding Other) and Hispanic women had maternal mortality rates of 11.7 and 8.0, respectively. However, rates based on small numbers may be misleading (see Technical Appendix).
Life Expectancy at Birth
Texans born in 2004 had a life expectancy at birth of 77.4 years. Because males tend to die from more external causes (such as accidents, homicide, and suicide) and at younger ages than females, females had a higher life expectancy at birth than males: 80.0 years vs. 74.8. An Hispanic child born in 2004 had a life expectancy at birth of 78.7 years, while a white newborn had a life expectancy of 77.7 years. Black life expectancy remained below the average, at 72.6 years (see Table 25).
Age-Adjusted Death Rate
The age-adjusted death rate for Texas in 2004 was 825.4 deaths per 100,000 population. The age-adjusted death rate for males was 947.5 in 2004 and the rate for females was 721.3. The age-adjusted death rate for whites and others, regardless of gender, was 826.6 deaths per 100,000 population. The Hispanic rate of 680.1 remained the lowest of all racial/ethnic groups in 2004. The age-adjusted death rate for blacks continued to be well above the rate for the Texas population as a whole at 1,104.2 per 100,000 population (see Table 26A).
Years of Potential Life Lost (YPLL)
The YPLL statistic is a way to demonstrate both gender and race/ethnicity differences in mortality risks and is the sum of years lost by persons who die before the age of 65 (see Technical Appendix). The total YPLL for Texans in 2004 was 891,483 years, down from 909,333 years in 2003. Male mortality accounted for 568,025 or 63.7 percent of these years and the total YPLL for women was 323,459 or 36.3 percent. This difference is mostly due to males dying at younger ages than females from causes that are primarily external or preventable in nature, such as accidents and HIV infection.
Death by accident was the number one cause of premature mortality in 2004 and represented 181,896 YPLL, or 9.0 years per 1,000 persons ages 0-64. Malignant neoplasms were responsible for the second largest number of years lost with 129,127 YPLL, for a rate of 6.4. Heart disease had a rate of 5.1 and remained the third leading cause of YPLL in Texas, with 102,709 years of potential life lost. Certain Conditions Originating in the Perinatal Period was the fourth leading cause of premature mortality with 72,888 YPLL, with a rate of 3.6. The number of years lost from suicide and congenital anomalies were the fifth and sixth leading cause of premature mortality in Texas with YPLLs of 49,246 and 44,670 respectively (or 2.4 and 2.2 years per 1,000 persons ages 0-64 respectively).
2004 Annual Report Table of Contents
Annual Reports for Previous Years
Center for Health Statistics