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Vibrio vulnificus, a halophilic (salt-requiring) bacterium, exist naturally in marine and estuarine environments throughout the world, including the warm coastal waters and some inland brackish lakes of the United States and Canada. The bacteria are capable of infecting marine fish and shellfish, especially oysters harvested from coastal areas.
Transmission occurs through the consumption of raw, undercooked or contaminated shellfish, especially oysters; or wound related, due to the exposure of a new or pre-existing wound to marine, estuarine and brackish waters.
Persons with underlying medical conditions, especially liver disease, may be at increased risk of infection and serious complications. A higher risk of transmission has been linked to the warmer months of the year.
Illness onset can occur between 16 hours to 7 days after the consumption of contaminated food or exposure of a wound to contaminated water.
Wound infection symptoms include:
- Blistering and ulceration
- Swelling and reddening
- Fluid build-up
- Sepsis and shock
Symptoms of severe bloodstream infection in susceptible individuals can occur rapidly after ingestion and include:
- Sudden chills and fever
- Decreased blood pressure
- Skin lesions on the limbs and trunk of the body
The risk of severe complications and death in susceptible individuals who succumb to primary septicemia is high (50% mortality).
Gastrointestinal symptoms include:
- Abdominal pain
General recommendations for avoiding Vibrio vulnificus gastrointestinal illness and severe infection in susceptible individuals:
- Implement refrigeration of seafood from harvesting/purchase to consumption.
- Avoid the consumption of raw seafood, especially oysters, if:
- They have come from coastal waters during the warmer months of the year
- You have a weakened immune system, liver disease/condition or an iron-related disorder
- When preparing oysters, mussels or other molluscan shellfish –
- Before cooking, discard any opened shells
- Boil, broil or fry (at 375°F) for at least 3-5 minutes
- Bake at 450°F for 10 minutes
- As a rule – discard any unopened shells after cooking
- Only eat seafood or shellfish that is thoroughly cooked until steaming hot.
- Eat shellfish immediately after cooking and refrigerate leftovers.
- Avoid cross contaminating raw juices from seafood with other foods, and immediately cleanup any spills with hot water and soap and clean rinsing water.
- Keep raw seafood separate from other food.
- Thoroughly wash hands, utensils and surfaces after preparing or handling raw seafood.
General recommendations for avoiding wound infections:
- Do not handle raw seafood of any kind if you have a pre-existing wound.
- Wear protective clothing (ie. Gloves) when handling raw seafood.
- Avoid marine, estuarine or brackish (sea/ocean) water if you have a pre-existing wound.
- If you sustain a wound or injury while exposed to salty seawater or while handling seafood, thoroughly clean and disinfect the area immediately and seek medical attention if the area becomes inflamed.
Recent Texas Trends
Over the last
five years, 2011-2015, the average number of Vibrio vulnificus
infections reported in Texas has been 21 cases per year (ranging from 15 to
35). Of the 35 cases reported in 2015, 77% reported contact with water, 11%
reported consumption of shellfish, mainly raw oysters, and for 11%, an exposure
type could not be determined. Infections also appear to be seasonal in nature,
with most (91% in 2015) occurring between May and October.