Texas Immunization Survey (TIS) - Vaccination Coverage Levels

Commissioned by the Associateship for Disease Control and Prevention of the Texas Department of Health, the Texas Immunization Survey (TIS) is a population-based survey designed to assess immunization levels among Texas children 3 through 24 months of age. Statewide surveys were conducted in 1994, 1996, 1998 and 2000. The 1994 TIS was an in-person survey and the 1996, 1998 and 2000 TIS were random digit dial telephone surveys. Trained interviewers used a standardized English- or Spanish-language instrument to solicit information from a parent or legal guardian. The instrument was modeled after the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention State and Local Area Immunization Coverage and Health Survey questionnaire. To determine a child's immunization history, interviewers asked for dates of each vaccine including diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP), polio vaccine (OPV/IPV), and measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine. For parents without their child's shot record, interviewers asked about each vaccine, whether the child had received the shot, how many, and at what age. A proportion of immunization histories were verified with providers records.

In tables showing results from the TIS, children were defined as up-to-date if they met the following criteria:

  • 3 through 4 months of age: received 1 dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine and 1 dose of polio vaccine (OPV/IPV)
  • 5 through 6 months of age: received 2 DTP and 2 OPV/IPV
  • 7 through 15 months of age: received 3 DTP and 2 OPV/IPV
  • 16 through 24 months of age: received 4 DTP, 3 OPV/IPV, and 1 dose of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine

Percentage of Children Up-to-Date on Immunizations

Percentage of Children Up-to-Date on Immunizations
Survey
Year
Percentage
Immunized
Number
Immunized
1994 61.9% 4456
1996 67.9% 2983
1998 65.9% 417
2000 70.3% 2156

Percentage of Children Up-to-Date on Immunizations by Race / Ethnicity

Percentage of Children Up-to-Date on Immunizations by Race / Ethnicity
Race / Ethnicity 1994 % 1994 (N) 1996 % 1996 (N) 1998 % 1998 (N) 2000 % 2000 (N)
African American 47.4% 574 56.0% 478 63.4% 41% 72.1% 106
Hispanic 64.9% 2132 68.3% 1105 66.4% 146 66.7% 664
White 64.1% 1631 70.3% 1311 66.4% 217 73.6% 660

Percentage of Children Up-to-Date on Immunizations by Health Insurance Coverage and Public Assistance Factors


Health Insurance

Percentage of Children with Health Insurance Up-to-Date on Immunizations
Insurance Type 1994 % 1994 (N) 1996 % 1996 (N) 1998 % 1998 (N) 2000 % 2000 (N)
None 61.7 (1415) 62.3 (382) 61.9 (63) 54.8 (288)
Medicaid 52.0 (1110) 69.3 (1063) 62.7 (134) 72.1 (716)
Private 67.2 (1931) 68.7 (1538) 69.1 (220) 73.6 (1125)

Receiving AFDC

Percentage of Children Receiving AFDC Up-to-Date on Immunizations
Receiving AFDC 1994 % 1994 (N) 1996 % 1996 (N) 1998 % 1998 (N) 2000 % 2000 (N)
Yes 47.6 (697) 66.5 (240) *   73.9 (52)
No 64.6 (3757) 68.3 (2737) 66.7 (393) 70.2 (1419)

Enrolled in WIC

Percentage of Children Enrolled in WIC Up-to-Date on Immunizations
Enrolled in WIC 1994 % 1994 (N) 1996 % 1996 (N) 1998 % 1998 (N) 2000 % 2000 (N)
Yes 64.1 (2146) 69.2 (1187) 63.9 (169) 68.0 (666)
No 60.4 (2310) 66.9 (1791) 67.6 (247) 72.1 (804)

AFDC = Aid to Families with Dependent Children
WIC = Women, Infants and Children
* Pecentage not calculated. Sample size was less than 25.


Percentage of Children Up-to-Date on Immunizations by County

Percentage of Children Up-to-Date on Immunizations by County
County 1994 % 1994 (N) 1996 % 1996 (N) 2000 % 2000 (N)
Bexar 60.3 377 69.2 251 67.3 202
Dallas 61.6 373 64.2 364 68.6 185
El Paso 72.7 377 67.9 246 59.1 203
Harris 51.9 373 68.6 304 68.5 168
Hidalgo 65.9 379 71.3 224 65.6 212
Nueces 60.9 369 63.2 268 64.5 211
Potter 60.3 371 69.8 258 72.2 205
Smith 64.7 370 68.3 244 66.7 171
Tarrant 62.0 372 65.4 408 72.6 186
Travis 57.5 355 71.9 270 73.9 176

Immunizations Rates by Race/ethnicity for Counties and Cities in Texas


Bexar County

Immunizations Rates by Race/ethnicity for Bexar County
Population 1994 % 1994 (N) 1996 % 1996 (N)
White 71.2 (60) 66.2 (91)
African American -- -- -- --
Hispanic 54.6 (298) 69.5 (144)

Dallas County

Immunizations Rates by Race/ethnicity for Dallas County
Population 1994 % 1994 (N) 1996 % 1996 (N)
White 62.1 (146) 67.9 (145)
African American 49.7 (65) 62.4 (116)
Hispanic 70.1 (143) 61.9 (88)

El Paso County

Immunizations Rates by Race/ethnicity for El Paso County
Population 1994 % 1994 (N) 1996 % 1996 (N)
White 72.2 (51) 72.4 (54)
African American -- -- -- --
Hispanic 72.0 (300) 66.5 (182)

Harris County

Immunizations Rates by Race/ethnicity for Harris County
Population 1994 % 1994 (N) 1996 % 1996 (N)
White 57.3 (114) 73.5 (94)
African American 35.7 (84) 62.1 (119)
Hispanic 56.8 (158) 67.6 (74)

Hidalgo County

Immunizations Rates by Race/ethnicity for Hidalgo County
Population 1994 % 1994 (N) 1996 % 1996 (N)
White -- -- -- --
African American -- -- -- --
Hispanic 67.2 (363) 72.3 (212)

Nueces County

Immunizations Rates by Race/ethnicity for Nueces County
Population 1994 % 1994 (N) 1996 % 1996 (N)
White 63.9 (143) 70.0 (113)
African American -- -- -- --
Hispanic 60.5 (205) 59.2 (140)

Potter County

Immunizations Rates by Race/ethnicity for Potter County
Population 1994 % 1994 (N) 1996 % 1996 (N)
White 65.3 (188) 77.3 (150)
African American 53.8 (72) -- --
Hispanic 48.6 (93) 62.4 (78)

Smith County

Immunizations Rates by Race/ethnicity for Smith County
Population 1994 % 1994 (N) 1996 % 1996 (N)
White 66.0 (199) 72.0 (187)
African American 52.8 (109) 67.8 (38)
Hispanic 82.4 (55) -- --

Tarrant County

Immunizations Rates by Race/ethnicity for Tarrant County
Population 1994 % 1994 (N) 1996 % 1996 (N)
White 62.4 (181) 71.3 (209)
African American 51.4 (55) 57.9 (126)
Hispanic 69.4 (122) 57.3 (56)

Travis County

Immunizations Rates by Race/ethnicity for Travis County
Population 1994 % 1994 (N) 1996 % 1996 (N)
White 55.8 (167) 73.6 (162)
African American 46.0 (56) -- --
Hispanic 67.9 (124) 72.4 (76)

Texas Immunization Survey Publications

  1. Prislin R, Suarez L, Simpson D, Dyer J.
    When Acculturation Hurts: The Case of Immunization.
    Soc Sci Med. 1998; 47(12): 1947-56.
  2. Prislin R, Dyer J, Blakely C, Johnson C.
    Immunization Status and Sociodemographic Characteristics: The Mediating Role of Beliefs, Attitudes, and Perceived Control.
    Am J Pub Hlth. 1998; 88(12): 1821-26.
  3. Simpson D, Suarez L, Smith D.
    Immunization Rates Among Young Children in the Public and Private Health Care Sectors.
    Am J Prev Med. 1997; 13(2): 84-88.
  4. Suarez L, Simpson D, Smith D.
    Impact of Public Assistance Factors on the Immunization Levels of Children Younger than 2 Years.
    Am J Pub Hlth. 1997; 87(5): 845-48.
  5. Suarez L, Simpson D, Smith D.
    Errors and Correlates in Parental Recall of Child Immunizations: Effects on Vaccination Coverage Estimates.
    Ped 1997; 99(5): 1-5.
  6. Simpson D, Suarez L.
    The Immunization Status of Texas Children Aged 3 to 24 Months: Results of the 1994 Texas Immunization Survey.
    TX Med. 1996; 92(3): 60-65.
Last updated September 30, 2016