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DSHS Authors: 2005 Reserach Articles by DSHS Staff

The following list includes peer-reviewed research articles that have been written by staff of the Texas Department of State Health Services since its formation in September 2004. For more information about these articles or for a full-text copy, please contact the Medical and Research Library by e-mail at library@dshs.texas.gov by calling (512) 776-7559.

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mrl-diamond2005 Articles (in date order with most recent first)

Seasonality and Urban/Rural Differences in Hepatitis A Incidence, Texas, 1989-1998.
Nichols K, Brender JD.
Texas Public Health Association Journal. 2005;56(3/4):3-13.
Information is limited on rural/urban and seasonal variations in hepatitis A incidence. Using surveillance data from the Texas Department of State Health Services, this study compared incidence rates and seasonality of hepatitis A in urban and rural counties in Texas for 1989-1998. Rates were highest among urban populations. The most frequently occurring months for onset of hepatitis A were August through October in urban counties and January through April in rural counties (p<0.05).

Polyphasic Characterization Reveals that the Human Pathogen Mycobacterium Peregrinum Type II Belongs to the Bovine Pathogen Species Mycobacterium Senegalense.
Wallace RJ Jr, Brown-Elliott BA, Brown J, Steigerwalt AG, Hall L, Woods G, Cloud J, Mann L, Wilson R, Crist C, Jost KC Jr, Byrer DE, Tang J, Cooper J, Stamenova E, Campbell B, Wolfe J, Turenne C.
J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Dec;43(12):5925-35.
Mycobacterium peregrinum consists of two taxa: types I and II. We evaluated 43 clinical type II strains from throughout the United States. They were responsible for soft-tissue and bone infections, catheter-related infections, and possible pneumonitis. By carbohydrate utilization, they were indistinguishable from type I strains, being D-mannitol and trehalose positive. However, they had a distinct susceptibility pattern that included intermediate ciprofloxacin MICs but low clarithromycin and doxycycline MICs of < or =1 microg/ml. These features were also shared by reference isolates of Mycobacterium senegalense from African bovine cases of "farcy." By 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the type II isolates shared 100% sequence identity with M. senegalense. Partial sequencing of the type II hsp65 gene (441 bp) revealed four sequevars showing > or =98.4% identity with each other and > or =98.6% identity with the sequence of five bovine strains of M. senegalense. There was < or =97.1% identity with M. peregrinum type I isolates and other Mycobacterium fortuitum group species. Sequencing of additional gene targets including the 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer region and the rpoB gene (partial sequence) revealed a similar phylogenetic grouping. DNA-DNA hybridization showed 76 to 99% relatedness between the bovine and human strains. These studies demonstrate that type II isolates are not isolates of M. peregrinum but represent human strains of M. senegalense. This study is the first to demonstrate this species as a human pathogen. Representative human M. senegalense strains include ATCC 35755 and newly submitted strains ATCC BAA-849, ATCC BAA-850, and ATCC BAA-851.

Pattern of Stingray Injuries Reported to Texas Poison Centers from 1998 to 2004.
Forrester MB.
Hum Exp Toxicol. 2005 Dec;24(12):639-42.
This study examined the relationship between selected factors and all human exposures involving stingray injuries reported to Texas poison centers. Cases were obtained retrospectively from calls to poison centers in Texas and included all reported human exposures involving stingray injuries from 1998 to 2004. The distribution of cases was determined for a variety of demographic and clinical parameters. A total of 153 cases were identified. The reported stingray injury penetrance increased during the 7-year period. Of the cases with a known patient age, 2% were <6 years, 25% were 6-19 years and 73% were >19 years. The stingray injuries occurred in public areas in 54% of the cases. In 61% of cases, the management site was reported not to be a health care facility. Of the cases with a known clinical outcome, none involved no effects and 53% involved minor effects. The highest proportion of stingray injuries occurred during the summer months, particularly August. In 60% of the cases, the calls originated from counties along the coast. This information can be used to identify those portions of the population most in need of education regarding the prevention and treatment of stingray injuries.

Iron Status Indicators in Women with Prior Neural Tube Defect-affected Pregnancies.
Felkner MM, Suarez L, Brender J, Scaife B, Hendricks K.
Matern Child Health J. 2005 Dec;9(4):421-8.
OBJECTIVES: Iron deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency in pregnant women and has been linked to negative impacts on the fetus. We describe the association of various iron-deficiency indices with risk of neural tube defect (NTD) among a high-risk Mexican-American population. METHODS: The study included 158 case-women (NTD-affected pregnancies) and 189 control-women (normal births) who were residents of the 14 Texas-Mexico border counties and delivered or terminated pregnancies during 1995-2000. In-person interviews and laboratory assays provided data. RESULTS: Case-women had higher odds of having minimal or no iron stores (serum ferritin <30 microg/L) compared to control-women (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.0-3.3). The risk effect was not explained by low folate or B12 or other risk factors. CONCLUSION: Low serum ferritin may reflect the additive effect of multiple long-term factors, many of them related to poverty such as poor quality diet, lack of supplementation, and frequent pregnancies. Interpartum care is indicated in this population.

2005 Robley D. Evans Commemorative Medal.
Fogle D, Jablonski S.
Health Phys. 2005 Dec;89(6):609-12.
This medal is given in memory of Dr. Robley D. Evans who, over a period of more than 50 years, was exemplary as a physics educator, scientist, author, and humanitarian. His contributions and dedication to radiation safety and to the health physics profession were extraordinary in practice and outstanding in intellectual acumen. The 2005 recipient is John W. Poston, Sr.

Texas' Community Health Workforce: From State Health Promotion Policy to Community-level Practice.
Nichols DC, Berrios C, Samar H.
Prev Chronic Dis. 2005 Nov;2 Spec no:A13. Epub 2005 Nov 1.
BACKGROUND: Imagine yourself in Texas as a newly arrived immigrant who does not speak English. What would you do if your child became ill? How would you find a doctor? When you find one, will the doctor speak your native language or understand your culture? In a state of approximately 22 million people, many Texas residents, marginalized by poverty and cultural traditions, find themselves in this situation. To help them, some communities across Texas offer the services of promotores, or community health workers, who provide health education and assist with navigating the health care system. CONTEXT: In 1999, Texas became the first state in the nation to recognize these workers and their contributions to keeping Texans healthy. This paper examines a state health promotion policy that culminated in a training and certification program for promotores and the impact of this program on the lay health education workforce in Texas. METHODS: In 1999, the Texas legislature established the 15-member Promotor(a) Program Development Committee to study issues involved in developing a statewide training and certification program. During its 2-year term, the committee met all six of its objectives toward establishing and maintaining a promotor(a) certification program. CONSEQUENCES: By the end of December 2005, it is estimated that there will be more than 700 certified promotores in Texas. State certification brings community health workers into the public health mainstream as never before. INTERPRETATION: Promotores, a community health safety net and a natural extension of the health and human services agencies, improve health at the neighborhood level. Certification brings renewed commitment to serving others and a distinction to those who have been the unsung heroes of public health for decades.

Nutmeg Intoxication in Texas, 1998-2004.
Forrester MB.
Hum Exp Toxicol. 2005 Nov;24(11):563-6.
Nutmeg is a spice that contains volatile oils comprised of alkyl benzene derivatives (myristicin, elemicin, safrole, etc.), terpenes and myristic acid. Nutmeg has a long history of abuse. This study describes the nutmeg ingestion calls received by Texas poison centers from 1998 to 2004. There were 17 calls involving nutmeg ingestion, of which 64.7% involved intentional abuse. When abuse and non-abuse ingestions were compared, abuse ingestions were more likely to involve males (100 versus 66.7%) and adolescents (55.6 versus 16.7%). The majority of both abuse and non-abuse calls were managed outside of health care facilities (54.5 and 66.7%, respectively). None of the ingestions resulted in more than moderate clinical effects or death.

Texas Poisonings at the Beginning of the 21st Century: 2000 through 2002.
Morgan DL, Forrester MB.
Texas Medicine, November 2005;101(11):72-78.
Human exposure calls to poison centers may vary by geographic region. This investigation compared the pattern of human exposure calls to Texas poison centers with calls to those in other states from 2000 through 2002. Although the total number of human exposure calls increased for both Texas and non-Texas poison centers, the increase was twice as great for those in Texas. Patients in Texas human exposure calls tended to be younger. Texas calls were more likely to involve bites and stings, suspected suicides, and intentional abuse exposures and were less likely to involve unintentional environmental exposures. Texas exposures were less likely to occur by dermal, inhalation, and ocular routes. Texas patients were more likely to be treated with decontamination. The death rate from poisoning was slightly lower in Texas. Knowledge of the human exposure calls to particular poison centers allows the poison centers to use their resources most efficiently.

Changes in the Birth Prevalence of Selected Birth Defects after Grain Fortification with Folic Acid in the United States: Findings from a Multi-state Population-based Study.
Canfield MA, Collins JS, Botto LD, Williams LJ, Mai CT, Kirby RS, Pearson K, Devine O, Mulinare J; National Birth Defects Prevention Network.
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2005 Oct;73(10):679-89.
BACKGROUND: Observational studies and clinical trials have suggested that periconceptional use of folic acid can reduce the risk of birth defects other than neural tube defects (NTDs). Using data reported by states to the National Birth Defects Prevention Network, we examined whether folic acid fortification might have decreased the prevalence of other specific birth defects. METHODS: For each of 16 birth defect categories selected for study, birth prevalence for two time periods was calculated with data submitted from a number of states in 1995-1996 ("pre-fortification") and 1999-2000 ("post-fortification"). Changes in birth prevalence between the two time periods were assessed by calculating prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for each defect, and compared by maternal race/ethnicity and availability of prenatally diagnosed cases. RESULTS: We confirmed previously reported reductions in the birth prevalence of NTDs. In addition, we found modest, yet statistically significant, decreases in the birth prevalence for transposition of the great arteries(12%), cleft palate only (12%), pyloric stenosis (5%), upper limb reduction defects (11%), and omphalocele (21%). More substantial subgroup decreases were observed for renal agenesis among programs that conduct prenatal surveillance (28%), for common truncus among Hispanics (45%), and for upper limb reduction defects among Hispanics (44%). There were modest yet significant increases in the prevalence of obstructive genitourinary defects (12%) and Down syndrome (7%), but not among programs conducting prenatal surveillance for these defects. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest some modest benefit from the folic acid fortification on the prevalence of a number of non-NTD birth defects.

Prevalence is the Preferred Measure of Frequency of Birth Defects.
Mason CA, Kirby RS, Sever LE, Langlois PH.
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2005 Oct;73(10):690-2.
Researchers and other public health professionals continue to debate the use of prevalence versus incidence as the preferred term to represent the frequency of birth defects. This paper addresses this question by noting that incidence—the number of new cases of a disorder in a given at-risk population during a specified time period--cannot be reliably estimated with existing data. Consequently, it is not appropriate to use the term "incidence" in reporting the frequency of birth defects, and the term prevalence is recommended. The basis for this recommendation, and issues involved in calculating both measures, are discussed.

Pesticide-related Illness and Injury Surveillance: A How-to Guide for State-based Programs.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. DSHS contributor: R Rosales
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2006-102, October 2005.

Infectious Disease and Dermatologic Conditions in Evacuees and Rescue Workers after Hurricane Katrina -- Multiple States, August -- September, 2005.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. DSHS contributors: BR Smith, MD, C Wallace
Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. September 30, 2005 / 54(38);961-964.
On August 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina struck states along the Gulf Coast of the United States. In the days after the hurricane struck, approximately 750 evacuation centers were established in at least 18 states to accommodate more than 200,000 evacuees (1). State and local health departments, with assistance from CDC, initiated enhanced infectious disease surveillance and outbreak response activities, implemented by teams of public health and rescue workers, including military personnel. Outbreak monitoring included direct reporting of conditions of public health significance to public health agencies; daily contact between CDC and local public health officials; canvassing of reports from CDC, public health departments, and news media for potential infectious disease outbreaks; and investigation of reports of infectious disease with outbreak potential. This report summarizes infectious disease and dermatologic conditions reported during the first 3 weeks after the hurricane, before effective local surveillance was fully implemented. One outbreak of norovirus was reported among evacuees in Texas; no other outbreaks requiring unusual mobilization of public health resources were reported among evacuees or rescue workers.

Drug Adherence: Effects of Decreased Visit Frequency on Adherence to Clozapine Therapy.
Patel NC, Crismon ML, Miller AL, Johnsrud MT.
Pharmacotherapy. 2005 Sep;25(9):1242-7.
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of visit frequency on drug-adherence parameters subsequent to the change in the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-mandated monitoring of white blood cell counts from weekly to every 2 weeks (biweekly) after 6 months of clozapine therapy. METHODS: Paid prescription claims records for clozapine from September 1, 1995-August 31, 2001, were extracted from the Texas Medicaid Vendor Drug Program database. Two groups of subjects were identified: subjects treated before and those treated after the FDA labeling change in monitoring frequency, which occurred on April 1, 1998. Prescription claims records for each subject were assessed for 365 days after the initial 6 months of therapy. Adherence measures included persistence, medication possession ratio (MPR), and time taking clozapine. RESULTS: Subjects receiving weekly hematologic monitoring had significantly higher rates of persistence (0.79 +/- 0.35 vs 0.70 +/- 0.38, p < 0.001) and MPRs (0.75 +/- 0.36 vs 0.66 +/- 0.38, p < 0.001) and continued to take clozapine longer (p < 0.002) compared with subjects receiving biweekly monitoring. Fewer subjects in the weekly monitoring group discontinued clozapine therapy during the 1-year study period (49.4% vs 57.9%, p = 0.008). Similar results were observed when cohorts were matched according to age, sex, and index clozapine dosage. CONCLUSION: Significant effects of visit frequency on adherence to clozapine therapy were noted. For patients inadequately adherent to therapy, an increase in visit frequency may improve adherence, and based on these results, the extra visits do not need to be with a physician or have any specific purpose other than contact with a provider.

Evaluation of Oral Rabies Vaccination Programs for Control of Rabies Epizootics in Coyotes and Gray Foxes: 1995-2003.
Sidwa TJ, Wilson PJ, Moore GM, Oertli EH, Hicks BN, Rohde RE, Johnston DH.
J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2005 Sep 1;227(5):785-92.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of intervention efforts to halt 2 wildlife rabies epizootics from 1995 through 2003, including 9 oral rabies vaccination campaigns for coyotes and 8 oral rabies vaccination campaigns for gray foxes. DESIGN: Retrospective study. ANIMALS: 98 coyotes during prevaccination surveillance and 963 coyotes and 104 nontarget animals during postvaccination surveillance in south Texas, and 699 gray foxes and 561 nontarget animals during postvaccination surveillance in west-central Texas. PROCEDURES: A recombinant-virus oral rabies vaccine in edible baits was distributed by aircraft for consumption by coyotes and gray foxes. Bait acceptance was monitored by use of microscopic analysis of tetracycline biomarker in upper canine teeth and associated bone structures in animals collected for surveillance. Serologic responses were monitered by testing sera for rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies by use of the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test. The incidence of rabies in the distribution area was recorded via active and passive surveillance activities; tracking of rabies virus variants in confirmed rabid animals was used to determine the number and type of rabies cases before and after distributions of the vaccine. RESULTS: The expansion of both epizootics was halted as a result of the vaccine bait program. The number of laboratory-confirmed rabid animals attributable to the domestic dog-coyote rabies virus variant in south Texas declined to 0, whereas the number of laboratory-confirmed rabid animals attributable to the Texas fox rabies virus variant in west-central Texas decreased. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Data indicated that oral rabies vaccination resulted in protective immunity in a sufficient percentage of the target wildlife population to preclude propagation of the disease and provided an effective means of controlling rabies in these species.

Duloxetine Hydrochloride: A New Dual-Acting Medication for the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder.
Hunziker ME, Suehs BT, Bettinger TL, Crismon ML.
Clin Ther. 2005 Aug;27(8):1126-43.
BACKGROUND: Duloxetine hydrochloride has recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). Duloxetine is a potent inhibitor of serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake, with weak effects on dopamine reuptake. OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the literature on duloxetine with regard to its pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, and tolerability. METHODS: A comprehensive search of MEDLINE was performed using the terms duloxetine, Cymbalta, and major depressive disorder, with no restriction on year. The Eli Lilly and Company clinical trial registry, and abstracts and posters from recent American Psychiatric Association meetings were also reviewed. RESULTS: Duloxetine exhibits linear, dose-dependent pharmacokinetics across the approved oral dosage range of 40 to 60 mg/d. No dose adjustment appears to be needed based on age. Duloxetine has shown efficacy in reducing depressive symptoms compared with placebo, and duloxetine recipients have shown significant improvements in global functioning compared with placebo (both, P < 0.05). Response and remission rates have been comparable to or greater than those seen with fluoxetine or paroxetine. Duloxetine is generally well tolerated, with nausea, dry mouth, and fatigue being the most common treatment-emergent adverse effects. Cardiovascular adverse effects do not appear to result in sustained blood pressure elevations, QTc-interval prolongation, or other electrocardiographic changes. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the available evidence, duloxetine is a well-tolerated and effective treatment for MDD in adults. Randomized head-to-head comparisons against established antidepressants are needed to determine the relative safety and efficacy of duloxetine.

Epidemiology of Noncomplex Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction Malformations (Aortic Valve Stenosis, Coarctation of the Aorta, Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome) in Texas, 1999-2001.
McBride KL, Marengo L, Canfield M, Langlois P, Fixler D, Belmont JW.
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2005 Aug;73(8):555-61.
BACKGROUND: The left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) malformations aortic valve stenosis (AVS), coarctation of the aorta (CoA), and hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) contribute significantly to infant mortality due to birth defects. Previous epidemiology data showed rate differences between male and female and white and black ethnic groups. The Texas Birth Defects Registry, an active surveillance program, enables study in a large, diverse population including Hispanics. METHODS: Records of children up to 1 year old with AVS, CoA, and HLHS born in Texas from 1999 to 2001, were collected from the registry. Those including additional heart defects or a chromosomal anomaly were excluded. Multivariate analysis included: infant sex; United States-Mexico border county residence; and maternal age, race/ethnicity, birthplace, and education. RESULTS: There were 910 cases among 1.08 million live births, of which 499 met inclusion criteria. Multivariate modeling of all LVOT malformations combined demonstrated lower prevalence rate ratios (PRRs) for black males (0.26) and Hispanic males (0.70). Similar results were found for CoA but not AVS or HLHS. Higher PRRs were noted for increased maternal age for LVOT (1.3 for 24-34 years; 1.7 for >34 years), AVS, and HLHS, but not CoA, and higher PRRs across all diagnoses for males (LVOT PRR, 2.4) were noted. CoA PRRs were higher in border county vs. non-border county residents (PRR, 2.1). Maternal education and birthplace were not significant factors. CONCLUSIONS: There are rate differences for males among all 3 ethnic groups. Sex and ethnic differences suggest genetic etiologies, where the ethnic differences could be used to find susceptibility loci with mapping by admixture linkage disequilibrium. Increased CoA rates along the U.S.-Mexico border suggest environmental causes that will require further monitoring. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Folic Acid Calls to Poison Centers in Texas, 1998-2003.
Forrester MB.
Hum Exp Toxicol. 2005 Aug;24(8):423-7.
Folic acid (folacin, pteroylglutamic acid) is a monoglutamate form of the water-soluble B vitamin that is involved in the synthesis of nucleotides and amino acids and the normal maturation of red blood cells. This study describes the folic acid calls received by Texas poison centers during 1998-2003. There were 650 calls involving folic acid as a single-ingredient product, of which 55.1% were human exposures. Children age <6 years accounted for 80.1% of the human exposures. Patients were managed outside of the health care facilities in 92.1% of the cases. Of those cases with a known medical outcome, 94.8% had no clinical effects. This study found folic acid exposures reported to poison centers were unlikely to have more than minor adverse affects.

An Exploration of Self-reported Negative Affect by Adolescents as a Reason for Smoking: Implications for Tobacco Prevention and Intervention Programs.
Stevens SL, Colwell B, Smith DW, Robinson J, McMillan C.
Prev Med. 2005 Aug;41(2):589-96.
BACKGROUND: Negative affect is related to initiation and maintenance of smoking among youth and understanding its role is important when developing effective prevention and cessation programs. This study investigates the relationship between adolescent negative affect and smoking dependence, behaviors, attitudes, and self-efficacy in order to shed light on differences in adolescent smoking maintenance and cessation. METHODS: 721 smoking youth participated in a cognitive-behavioral smoking cessation program. Reasons for smoking were categorized (alpha = 0.87) and youth were placed into one of two groups based on presence or absence of negative affect. One-way repeated measures ANOVA determined if differences existed between the groups on smoking behaviors, attitudes, and self-efficacy. One-way ANOVA determined if differences existed on Fagerstrom Nicotine Tolerance Dependence (FTND) scores. RESULTS: Adolescents indicating negative affect for smoking were significantly more likely to have future smoking intentions and had significantly less self-efficacy to quit smoking than adolescent reporting other reasons. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the need to address negative affect among adolescents participating in prevention and cessation programs. An examination of negative affect will provide program developers and facilitators with information to improve their interventions, assist with cessation, and provide an avenue to access other needed health services.

Relation between Ambient Air Quality and Selected Birth Defects, Seven County Study, Texas, 1997-2000.
Gilboa SM, Mendola P, Olshan AF, Langlois PH, Savitz DA, Loomis D, Herring AH, Fixler DE.
Am J Epidemiol. 2005 Aug 1;162(3):238-52. Epub 2005 Jun 29.
A population-based case-control study investigated the association between maternal exposure to air pollutants, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter <10 microm in aerodynamic diameter during weeks 3-8 of pregnancy and the risk of selected cardiac birth defects and oral clefts in livebirths and fetal deaths between 1997 and 2000 in seven Texas counties. Controls were frequency matched to cases on year of birth, vital status, and maternal county of residence at delivery. Stationary monitoring data were used to estimate air pollution exposure. Logistic regression models adjusted for covariates available in the vital record. When the highest quartile of exposure was compared with the lowest, the authors observed positive associations between carbon monoxide and tetralogy of Fallot (odds ratio = 2.04, 95% confidence interval: 1.26, 3.29), particulate matter <10 microm in aerodynamic diameter and isolated atrial septal defects (odds ratio = 2.27, 95% confidence interval: 1.43, 3.60), and sulfur dioxide and isolated ventricular septal defects (odds ratio = 2.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.51, 3.09). There were inverse associations between carbon monoxide and isolated atrial septal defects and between ozone and isolated ventricular septal defects. Evidence that air pollution exposure influences the risk of oral clefts was limited. Suggestive results support a previously reported finding of an association between ozone exposure and pulmonary artery and valve defects.

Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Risk of Neural-tube Defects in a Mexican American Population.
Suarez L, Gilani Z, Felkner M, Brender J, Henry J, Hendricks K.
Int J Occup Environ Health. 2005 Jul-Sep;11(3):233-7.
The authors examined the association between maternal polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels and risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in Mexican American women with NTD-affected pregnancies who resided in the 14 Texas-Mexico border counties during 1995-2000 (cases). Controls were randomly selected from study area women delivering normal live births. For PCB congeners with sufficient numbers of detectable values (PCB 99, 101, 110, 118, 138, 153, 180), there was little association between the proportions with detectable PCB levels in cases and controls. Odds ratios were <1 or compatible with the null, but power was low for some congeners. An index of seven PCB congeners (105, 118, 138, 153, 170, 180, 194) was also not associated with NTD risk. The maternal serum PCB levels in this study population (median PCB 153 level: 18 ng/g) were comparable to those with background exposure and do not appear to have contributed to the high prevalence of NTDs in this population.

Assessment of Adherence Measures with Different Stimulants among Children and Adolescents.
Sanchez RJ, Crismon ML, Barner JC, Bettinger T, Wilson JP.
Pharmacotherapy. 2005 Jul;25(7):909-17.
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine adherence measures with different stimulants in children and adolescents. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. DATA SOURCE: Texas Medicaid prescription claims database. PATIENTS: A total of 9549 patients aged 5-18 years with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Paid prescription claims for newly started stimulants during the 2001-2002 school year were extracted from a database; 28,344 prescriptions (9549 patients) were available for analysis. Adherence was evaluated based on the drug therapy prescribed (i.e., mixed amphetamine salts, immediate-release methylphenidate, and extended-release methylphenidate-OROS [oral-osmotic formulation]) and the age and sex of the patient. Adherence measures were persistence and medication possession ratio (MPR). Persistence was higher for extended-release methylphenidate-OROS (0.50 +/- 0.33) than for mixed amphetamine salts (0.42 +/- 0.29) or immediate-release methylphenidate (0.37 +/- 0.26; p < 0.001). The MPR was also higher for extended-release methylphenidate-OROS (0.76 +/- 0.37) than for mixed amphetamine salts (0.73 +/- 0.37) or immediate-release methylphenidate (0.69 +/- 0.37; p < 0.001). Patients aged 5-9 years had equal or better persistence and MPR than those aged 10-14 and 15-18 years (p < 0.001). No sex-related differences in adherence were observed. CONCLUSION: Adherence measures in our study were low. Although they were significantly better for extended-release methylphenidate-OROS than the other stimulants, the clinical significance of these differences are unclear. Further research should be conducted regarding pharmaceutical products, administration methods, and clinical interventions that may enhance adherence.

Acute Illnesses Associated with Pesticide Exposure at Schools.
Alarcon WA, Calvert GM, Blondell JM, Mehler LN, Sievert J, Propeck M, Tibbetts DS, Becker A, Lackovic M, Soileau SB, Das R, Beckman J, Male DP, Thomsen CL, Stanbury M.
JAMA. 2005 Jul 27;294(4):455-65.
CONTEXT: Pesticides continue to be used on school property, and some schools are at risk of pesticide drift exposure from neighboring farms, which leads to pesticide exposure among students and school employees. However, information on the magnitude of illnesses and risk factors associated with these pesticide exposures is not available. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the magnitude of and associated risk factors for pesticide-related illnesses at schools. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Analysis of surveillance data from 1998 to 2002 of 2593 persons with acute pesticide-related illnesses associated with exposure at schools. Nationwide information on pesticide-related illnesses is routinely collected by 3 national pesticide surveillance systems: the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health’s Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks pesticides program, the California Department of Pesticide Regulation, and the Toxic Exposure Surveillance System. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence rates and severity of acute pesticide-related illnesses. RESULTS: Incidence rates for 1998-2002 were 7.4 cases per million children and 27.3 cases per million school employee full-time equivalents. The incidence rates among children increased significantly from 1998 to 2002. Illness of high severity was found in 3 cases (0.1%), moderate severity in 275 cases (11%), and low severity in 2315 cases (89%). Most illnesses were associated with insecticides (n = 895, 35%), disinfectants (n = 830, 32%), repellents (n = 335, 13%), or herbicides (n = 279, 11%). Among 406 cases with detailed information on the source of pesticide exposure, 281 (69%) were associated with pesticides used at schools and 125 (31%) were associated with pesticide drift exposure from farmland. CONCLUSIONS: Pesticide exposure at schools produces acute illnesses among school employees and students. To prevent pesticide-related illnesses at schools, implementation of integrated pest management programs in schools, practices to reduce pesticide drift, and adoption of pesticide spray buffer zones around schools are recommended.

Implementation and Outcomes of Recommended Folic Acid Supplementation in Mexican-American Women with Prior Neural Tube Defect-affected Pregnancies.
Felkner M, Suarez L, Hendricks K, Larsen R.
Prev Med. 2005 Jun;40(6):867-71.
BACKGROUND: Upon discovering an NTD incidence rate of 27/10,000 in a Texas border county, the Texas Department of Health initiated folic acid intervention for prevention of recurrent NTDs in this predominantly Mexican-American population. This paper describes compliance of this population with USPHS folic acid recommendations and the impact of supplementation on pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: Based upon information from active surveillance, field teams personally contacted women having NTD-affected pregnancies to enroll them in FA intervention. Enrollees were provided FA at home visits at 3-month intervals throughout the project. RESULTS: Of 405 women identified with NTD-affected pregnancies, 299 (73.8%) enrolled in the intervention. One hundred ninety-three pregnancies occurred among 138 women. FA supplementation of 0.4 mg/day or more occurred during the last month preconception in 161 (83.4%) of the 193 pregnancies. No NTDs were detected in the 130 livebirths to women who received supplementation nor were NTDs detected in the 23 supplemented women who experienced pregnancy loss. CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation was successful in preventing recurrent NTDs in Mexican-American women.

Improving the Use of Data for HIV Prevention Decision Making: Lessons Learned.
Jenkins RA, Averbach AR, Robbins A, Cranston K, Amaro H, Morrill AC, Blake SM, Logan JA, Batchelor K, Freeman AC, Carey JW.
AIDS Behav. 2005 Jun;9(2 Suppl):S87-99.
HIV prevention community planning was developed to promote identification of local prevention priorities through a process that was evidence-based and provided community input. There are a variety of barriers to effective use of data in community planning which include characteristics of data (availability, timeliness, relevance to planning tasks), characteristics of planning group members and providers of data (e.g., skills in understanding and applying data), and social-organizational aspects of community-planning groups (CPGs). Lessons learned from this project illustrate how to create locally relevant sources of data, build data use skills of CPG members and data providers, and address social-organizational aspects of planning, while also better integrating community planning with implementation of prevention plans. Adaptation of tools and methods is discussed along with future considerations for research and planning practice.

After the Innovation: Outcomes from the Texas Behavioral Data Project.
Batchelor K, Robbins A, Freeman AC, Dudley T, Phillips N.
AIDS Behav. 2005 Jun;9(2 Suppl):S71-86.
The Texas Department of Health and University of Texas Southwestern staff, using formative assessment data, developed a set of innovative methods and tools to increase the use of behavioral and epidemiologic data in decision-making about HIV prevention interventions by HIV prevention community planning groups (CPGs) and HIV prevention providers. Semistructured interviews, mail surveys, meeting observations, and content analysis of funding proposals were used to measure the results of the multifaceted intervention. Compared to baseline measures, CPG members reported that data played a more central and desired role in their decision-making. HIV prevention providers exposed to the project's materials were more likely to choose evidence-based interventions to conduct. The tools and structural intervention methods of this project were diffused and had an impact on the use of behavioral data by community planning groups and HIV prevention providers. The structural interventions were not sufficient without the additional effect of the trained peers acting as advocates and intervention innovators.

Bridging Data and Decision Making: Development of Techniques for Improving the HIV Prevention Community Planning Process.
Jenkins RA, Robbins A, Cranston K, Batchelor K, Freeman AC, Averbach AR, Amaro H, Morrill AC, Blake SM, Logan JA, Carey JW.
AIDS Behav. 2005 Jun;9(2 Suppl):S41-53.
Assessments of community planning in Massachusetts and Texas were used to develop tools for increasing the use of data by HIV prevention community planning groups (CPGs) and prevention providers while also increasing participation of CPG members. Barriers to data use included organizational problems in CPGs (e.g., lack of clear procedures, distrust of peers and leadership) and technical assistance needs for CPG members and researchers who provide data. The absence of data relevant to local epidemics was another barrier. Specific linkages are provided between the assessments of these needs and the development of a technical assistance tools (e.g., websites, templates for data presentation, experiential involvement in data use) and strategies for organizational change in CPGs, as well as efforts to better use available data and create or identify new sources of local data.

Formative Assessment of Use of Behavioral Data in HIV Prevention: Texas.
Batchelor K, Freeman AC, Robbins A, Dudley T, Phillips N.
AIDS Behav. 2005 Jun;9(2 Suppl):S29-40.
A formative assessment was conducted with Texas HIV prevention community planning group (CPG) members, prevention provider staff, and supervisors of those staff to better understand how to enhance their use of epidemiologic and behavioral data in the selection and prioritization of prevention interventions. Semi-structured interviews, mail surveys, and content analysis of funding proposals were used to determine the current use of these data, their perceived value, and the most trusted sources for data. CPG members, prevention provider staff, and supervisors valued information from their peers and networking most, and made more use of socially available information than they did research or systematically collected assessment data. CPG members wanted more local data and data on specific sub-populations of interest. Prevention providers viewed the utility of behavioral data as limited, and were primarily concerned with the pragmatic aspects of fielding interventions; however, this group also expressed an interest in rapid community assessment methods and learning more about new and effective prevention interventions. These results led to the development of training and technical assistance materials.

CSHCN in Texas: Meeting the Need for Specialist Care.
Young MC, Drayton VL, Menon R, Walker LR, Parker CM, Cooper SB, Bultman LL.
Matern Child Health J. 2005 Jun;9(2 Suppl):S49-57.
OBJECTIVE: Assuring the sufficiency and suitability of systems of care and services for children with special health care needs (CSHCN) presents a challenge to Texas providers, agencies, and state Title V programs. To meet the need for specialist care, referrals from primary care doctors are often necessary. The objective of this study was to describe the factors associated with the need for specialist care and problems associated with obtaining referrals in Texas. METHODS: Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed using the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (NS-CSHCN) weighted sample for Texas (n = 719,014) to identify variables associated with the need for specialist care and problems obtaining referrals for specialist care. RESULTS: Medical need of the CSHCN and sensitivity to family values/customs was associated with greater need for specialist care, and Hispanic ethnicity and lower maternal education were associated with less need. Medical need, amount of time spent with doctors and sensitivity to values/customs, living in a large metropolitan statistical area, and lack of medical information were associated with problems obtaining a specialist care referral. CONCLUSIONS: Findings revealed some similarities and differences with meeting the need for specialist care when comparing Texas results to other studies. In Texas, aspects of customer satisfaction variables, especially doctors' sensitivity to family values/customs and parents' not receiving enough information on medical problems, were significantly associated with problems obtaining specialist referrals. Findings indicate a need to further research relationships and communication among doctors, CSHCN, and their families.

Unintentional Topical Lindane Ingestions -- United States, 1998-2003.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. DSHS contributor: J Sievert
Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. June 3, 2005 / 54(21);533-535.
Lindane is an organochlorine pesticide found in certain prescription-only shampoos and topical lotions used to treat pediculosis (i.e., lice infestation) and scabies; lindane has been associated with human neurologic toxicity (1,2). In 2004, CDC was alerted to cases of illness caused by unintentional ingestion of lindane by persons mistaking the product for a liquid oral medication (e.g., cough syrup). To assess the extent of illness from ingestion of lindane, CDC, with assistance from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and state health departments, collected case reports and analyzed data from the Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks-Pesticides (SENSOR-Pesticides) program and the Toxic Exposure Surveillance System (TESS). This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which identified 870 cases of unintentional lindane ingestion during 1998--2003, and describes two examples of lindane ingestions. To reduce the risk of lindane ingestion, public health authorities should alert clinicians to the hazards of lindane and the importance of following FDA usage guidelines, which include dispensing lindane in manufacturer-produced, 1- or 2-ounce single-use containers.

A national Agenda for Latino Cancer Prevention and Control.
Ramirez AG, Gallion KJ, Suarez L, Giachello AL, Marti JR, Medrano MA,
Perez-Stable EJ, Talavera GA, Trapido EJ.
Cancer. 2005 Jun 1;103(11):2209-15.
Although cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and premature death among Latinos, there is limited knowledge of cancer-related issues and priorities of greatest significance to the Latino population, the largest minority group in the nation. This information is vital in helping to guide Latino cancer research, training, and awareness efforts at national, regional, and local levels. To help identify cancer issues of greatest relevance to Latinos, Redes En Accion, The National Hispanic/Latino Cancer Network, a major network among the National Cancer Institute's Special Populations Networks, conducted a survey of 624 key opinion leaders from around the country. Respondents were asked to rank the three cancer sites most important to Latinos in their region and the five issues of greatest significance for this population's cancer prevention and control. Recommendations were prioritized for three specific areas: 1) research, 2) training and/or professional education, and 3) awareness and/or public education. Among cancers, breast carcinoma was ranked number one, followed in order by cervical and lung carcinomas. The issues of greatest significance to Latinos were 1) access to cancer screening and care, 2) tobacco use, 3) patient-doctor communication, 4) nutrition, and 5) risk communication. This survey solicited information from scientists, health care professionals, leaders of government agencies, professional and community-based organizations, and other stakeholders in Latino health. The results laid the foundation for a national Redes En Accion Latino cancer agenda, thus providing a useful tool for individuals and organizations engaged in cancer prevention and control efforts among the Hispanic-Latino population.

Rural Residence is Not a Risk Factor for Frequent Mental Distress: A Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey.
Rohrer JE, Borders TF, Blanton J.
BMC Public Health. 2005 May 16;5(1):46.
BACKGROUND: Residents of rural areas may be at increased risk of mental health problems. If so, public health programs aimed at preventing poor mental health may have to be customized for delivery to rural areas. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between residing in a rural area and frequent mental distress, which is one indicator of poor mental health. METHODS: The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey for the state of Texas was the source of information about obesity, demographic characteristics, and frequent mental distress (FMD). FMD was defined as poor self-rated mental health during at least half of the days in the last month. Adjusted odds for FMD were computed for rural and suburban respondents relative to urban respondents. RESULTS: FMD was found to be independently associated with lower education, being younger, being non-Hispanic, being unmarried, and being female. FMD also was associated with being obese or underweight and suburban residence (relative to metro-central city). FMD was not more common among rural respondents than in the metro-central city. CONCLUSION: Rural respondents were not at greater risk of frequent mental distress than urban respondents in this sample. Programs seeking to improve community mental health should target persons with less education and extremes in body weight, along with women and single persons, regardless of whether they live in rural or urban areas.

Prevalence of Nonsyndromic Oral Clefts in Texas: 1995-1999.
Hashmi SS, Waller DK, Langlois P, Canfield M, Hecht JT.
Am J Med Genet A. 2005 May 1;134(4):368-72.
Nonsyndromic cleft lip with/without cleft palate (NSCLP) and nonsyndromic cleft palate only (NSCPO) are common complex birth defects affecting 4,000 newborns annually. We undertook a descriptive study of oral clefts in Texas, focusing on the effect of folic acid fortification and Hispanic ethnicity on the prevalence of oral clefts as these factors have not previously been described. Data on 896 infants with NSCLP and NSCPO born between 1995 and 1999 in Texas were compared to all births in Texas during the same period. Prevalence odds ratios (POR) were calculated for maternal ethnicity, race, age, parity, public health region of residence, highest level of education, and infant gender. The effect of folic acid fortification on oral clefts was also examined. Compared with whites, adjusted POR were 0.97 (95% CI = 0.77-1.23) and 0.90 (95% CI 0.72-1.14) for NSCLP and 0.46 (95% CI = 0.30-0.72) and 0.62 (95% CI = 0.42-0.90) for NSCPO in foreign-born and US-born Hispanics, respectively. After fortification was implemented, the rate of NSCLP did not decrease. However, there was a 13% decrease in the prevalence of NSCPO (adjusted POR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.68-1.15). Compared to whites, the rates in US-born and foreign-born Hispanic women were similar for NSCLP and much lower for NSCPO. The small reduction of 13% in NSCPO after folic acid fortification is imprecise and should be interpreted cautiously. Overall, it appears that folic acid fortification has had very little or no effect on the prevalence of oral clefts in infants born in Texas. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

The Wound Care Team: A New Source of Group a Streptococcal Nosocomial Transmission.
Felkner M, Pascoe N, Shupe-Ricksecker K, Goodman E.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2005 May;26(5):462-5.
BACKGROUND: In August 2001, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) notified the Texas Department of Health (TDH) of an unusually high number of wounds infected with group A streptococci (GAS) in an acute care facility. The TDH initiated an investigation, ultimately identifying 28 cases of non-pharyngeal, non-community-acquired GAS that had occurred between December 2000 and August 2001 and resulted in 3 deaths and 4 nonfatal cases of invasive disease. Ten specimens were sent to the CDC for emm typing; all isolates were emm type 114. However, the source of the outbreak could not be confirmed through laboratory testing at that time. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted comparing the 10 case-patients with 52 control-patients with wounds that were not infected with GAS. Age, gender, type of wound, underlying medical conditions, and treatment by the wound care team were examined for association with GAS infection. RESULTS: The odds of having wound care team treatment versus not having it were 424.2 (95% confidence interval, 19.0 to 9,495.2) among case-patients when compared with control-patients. No other risk factor showed this magnitude of association. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided overwhelming epidemiologic evidence that the wound care team was the means of transmission. One year later, when two patients receiving wound care were concurrently diagnosed as having GAS, a member of the wound care team was found to be GAS positive for the matching emm type. This is the first report of a GAS hospital outbreak linked to a wound care team.

Association between Sociodemographic Factors and Exposures and Utilization of Poison Centers in Texas, 1998-2002.
Forrester MB.
J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2005 May 28;68(10):755-61.
This study evaluated whether selected sociodemographic factors and exposures may be associated with utilization of poison centers in Texas during 1998-2002. Data were obtained from the six poison centers that service the entire state. Cases were all human exposures where the caller county was known. The utilization rate (calls per 1000 population) was calculated for the entire state and for each county. Counties were then grouped into those with utilization rates lower than the utilization rate for the entire state and those with utilization rates higher than the rate for the entire state. The two groups were then compared with respect to sociodemographic factors derived from the 2000 Census and exposure categories derived from the poison centers. The group of counties with lower utilization rates had a lower population density, higher African-American and Hispanic populations, lower median household incomes, and higher percentage of the population who spoke a language other than English at home and spoke English less than "very well." Gender, age, and education factors were not related to utilization rates, and the most frequently reported exposure categories were similar between counties with lower and higher utilization rates. This information can be used to focus education and prevention efforts at those populations with lower utilization of the Texas Poison Center Network.

Human Exposures to Tilmicosin Reported to Poison Centres, Texas, 1998-2003.
Forrester MB.
Hum Exp Toxicol. 2005 May;24(5):275-8.
Tilmicosin, or 20-deoxo-20-(3,5-dimethylpiperidin-1-yl)-desmycosin, is a macrolide antibiotic primarily utilized in livestock. This study examined 46 human exposure calls involving tilmicosin received by Texas poison centres during 1998-2003. The majority (91%) of the calls were received from northern and central Texas. All of the cases were unintentional exposures. The most frequent route of exposure was parenteral (48%). The majority of the patients were males (80%) and adults (84%). Only 46% of the patients were managed outside of health care facilities. Some sort of adverse medical outcome was reported in 93% of parenteral exposures and 54% of other-route exposures. However, only 21% of parenteral exposures and 15% of other-route exposures involved medical outcomes that were judged to be moderate or worse. No deaths were reported. The most frequently reported clinical effects among parenteral cases were dermal (79%), while only 9% of other-route exposures had dermal effects. Cardiovascular clinical effects were observed in a single case of parenteral exposure and a single case of other-route exposure. Although the majority of cases were managed with the assistance of health care facilities, the medical outcomes were usually not serious. Outcome depended on the route of exposure.

Deaths of Clients in Methadone Treatment in Texas: 1994-2002.
Maxwell JC, Pullum TW, Tannert K.
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2005 Apr 4;78(1):73-81.
This study analyzes causes of deaths of 766 patients who died while in methadone treatment in Texas between 1994 and 2002. Compared with deaths in the general population of Texas, deaths of clients in methadone treatment were 4.6 times more likely to be from a drug overdose, 3.4 times more likely to be from liver disease, 1.7 times more likely to be from a respiratory disease, 1.5 times more likely to be from a homicide and 1.4 times more likely to be from AIDS, but less likely to be from suicide, motor vehicle accidents, cardiovascular diseases or cancer. Of the clients, 20% died of liver disease, 18% of cardiovascular disease and 14% of drug overdose. An older cohort had been in treatment longer, had more take-homes, were on higher doses and tended to die of chronic diseases. A younger cohort tended to die from traumas, including drug overdose. Time in treatment was 43.3 months; mean daily dose was 77.3mg; number of days/month dosed in the clinic was 13.9. Given these rates, the scope of services should include on-site treatment for other medical conditions and staff should be educated about and counsel about the risk of death for new patients.

Relapsing Diabetes Can Result from Moderately Activating Mutations in KCNJ11.
Gloyn AL, Reimann F, Girard C, Edghill EL, Proks P, Pearson ER, Temple IK, Mackay DJ, Shield JP, Freedenberg D, Noyes K, Ellard S, Ashcroft FM, Gribble FM, Hattersley AT.
Hum Mol Genet. 2005 Apr 1;14(7):925-34.
Neonatal diabetes can either remit and hence be transient or else may be permanent. These two phenotypes were considered to be genetically distinct. Abnormalities of 6q24 are the commonest cause of transient neonatal diabetes (TNDM). Mutations in KCNJ11, which encodes Kir6.2, the pore-forming subunit of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel (K(ATP)), are the commonest cause of permanent neonatal diabetes (PNDM). In addition to diabetes, some KCNJ11 mutations also result in marked developmental delay and epilepsy. These mutations are more severe on functional characterization. We investigated whether mutations in KCNJ11 could also give rise to TNDM. We identified the three novel heterozygous mutations (G53S, G53R, I182V) in three of 11 probands with clinically defined TNDM, who did not have chromosome 6q24 abnormalities. The mutations co-segregated with diabetes within families and were not found in 100 controls. All probands had insulin-treated diabetes diagnosed in the first 4 months and went into remission by 7-14 months. Functional characterization of the TNDM associated mutations was performed by expressing the mutated Kir6.2 with SUR1 in Xenopus laevis oocytes. All three heterozygous mutations resulted in a reduction in the sensitivity to ATP when compared with wild-type (IC(50) approximately 30 versus approximately 7 microM, P-value for is all <0.01); however, this was less profoundly reduced than with the PNDM associated mutations. In conclusion, mutations in KCNJ11 are the first genetic cause for remitting as well as permanent diabetes. This suggests that a fixed ion channel abnormality can result in a fluctuating glycaemic phenotype. The multiple phenotypes associated with activating KCNJ11 mutations may reflect their severity in vitro.

Trends in Antiretroviral Therapy Use and Survival Rates for a Large Cohort of HIV-infected Children and Adolescents in the United States, 1989-2001.
McConnell MS, Byers RH, Frederick T, Peters VB, Dominguez KL, Sukalac T, Greenberg AE, Hsu HW, Rakusan TA, Ortiz IR, Melville SK, Fowler MG; Pediatric Spectrum of HIV Disease Consortium.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005 Apr 1;38(4):488-94.
BACKGROUND: In the United States, HIV-infected children and adolescents are aging and using antiretroviral (ARV) therapy for extended periods of time. OBJECTIVE: To assess trends in ARV use and long-term survival in an observational cohort of HIV-infected children and adolescents in the United States. METHODS: The Pediatric Spectrum of HIV Disease Study (PSD) is a prospective chart review of more than 2000 HIV-infected children and adolescents. Patients were included in the analysis from enrollment until last follow-up. RESULTS: Triple-ARV therapy use (for 6 months or more) increased from 27% to 66% during 1997 to 2001 (P < 0.0001, chi for trend). The proportion of patients receiving 3 or more sequential triple-therapy regimens also increased from 4% to 17% during 1997 to 2001 (P < 0.0001, chi for trend), however, and the durability of triple-therapy regimens decreased from 13 to 7 months from the first to third regimen. Survival rates for the 1997 to 2001 birth cohorts were significantly better than for the 1989 to 1993 and 1994 to 1996 cohorts (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Survival rates in the PSD cohort have increased in association with triple-ARV therapy use. With continued changes in ARV regimens, effective modifications in ARV therapy and the sustainability of gains in survival need to be determined.

Transmission of Rabies Virus from an Organ Donor to Four Transplant Recipients.
Srinivasan A, Burton EC, Kuehnert MJ, Rupprecht C, Sutker WL, Ksiazek TG, Paddock CD, Guarner J, Shieh WJ, Goldsmith C, Hanlon CA, Zoretic J, Fischbach B, Niezgoda M, El-Feky WH, Orciari L, Sanchez EQ, Likos A, Klintmalm GB, Cardo D, LeDuc J, Chamberland ME, Jernigan DB, Zaki SR.
N Engl J Med. 2005 Mar 17;352(11):1103-11.
BACKGROUND: In 2004, four recipients of kidneys, a liver, and an arterial segment from a common organ donor died of encephalitis of an unknown cause. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of the organ donor and the recipients. Blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and tissues from the recipients were tested with a variety of assays and pathological stains for numerous causes of encephalitis. Samples from the recipients were also inoculated into mice. RESULTS: The organ donor had been healthy before having a subarachnoid hemorrhage that led to his death. Encephalitis developed in all four recipients within 30 days after transplantation and was accompanied by rapid neurologic deterioration characterized by agitated delirium, seizures, respiratory failure, and coma. They died an average of 13 days after the onset of neurologic symptoms. Mice inoculated with samples from the affected patients became ill seven to eight days later, and electron microscopy of central nervous system (CNS) tissue demonstrated rhabdovirus particles. Rabies-specific immunohistochemical and direct fluorescence antibody staining demonstrated rabies virus in multiple tissues from all recipients. Cytoplasmic inclusions consistent with Negri bodies were seen in CNS tissue from all recipients. Antibodies against rabies virus were present in three of the four recipients and the donor. The donor had told others of being bitten by a bat. CONCLUSIONS: This report documenting the transmission of rabies virus from an organ donor to multiple recipients underscores the challenges of preventing and detecting transmission of unusual pathogens through transplantation.

Pseudomonas Bloodstream Infections Associated with a Heparin/saline Flush--Missouri, New York, Texas, and Michigan, 2004-2005.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. DSHS contributor: N Pascoe, M Richardson
Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. March 25, 2005 / 54(11);269-272.
On January 26, 2005, CDC was notified of four cases of Pseudomonas fluorescens bloodstream infection among patients at an oncology clinic in Missouri. All patients had received a heparin/saline flush to prevent clotting of indwelling, central venous catheters. The flushes were preloaded in syringes by IV Flush and distributed by Pinnacle Medical Supply (Rowlett, Texas). On January 31, a nationwide alert against use of all heparin or saline flushes preloaded in syringes by IV Flush was issued by the Food and Drug Administration; the company recalled these products. As of February 15, state and local health departments and CDC had identified a total of 36 Psuedomonas species infections in patients in four states who were administered the heparin/saline flushes from multiple lots. This report describes the ongoing investigation and provides recommendations for investigation and management of potential cases.

Weight Changes in Teens on Psychotropic Medication Combinations at Austin State Hospital.
Becker EA, Shafer A, Anderson R.
Texas Medicine, March 2005;101(3):62-70.
Psychiatrists commonly treat adolescents with multiple psychotropic medications simultaneously. We studied the effects of psychotropic medications on the weight of adolescent patients at Austin State Hospital between June 1997 and December 2001. The medication combinations that caused the largest weight increases were olanzapine with valproic acid, and olanzapine with venlafaxine. The biggest weight loss combinations were valproic acid with bupropion, and valproic acid with venlafaxine. Medications drove a substantial portion of the changes in weight, not other variables. The specific medication prescribed, rather than the total number of medications, predicted weight gain. As current inpatient adolescents are receiving multiple medications and their weight is subsequently being affected, more study is needed to better understand these effects.

A Psychoeducational Program for Children with ADHD or Depression and Their Families: Results from the CMAP Feasibility Study.
Lopez MA, Toprac MG, Crismon ML, Boemer C, Baumgartner J.
Community Ment Health J. 2005 Feb;41(1):51-66.
For children and adolescents with behavioral and emotional disorders and their families, education about their disorders and the treatments is an essential component of a comprehensive approach to their care. Education can encourage active participation in treatment, enhance adherence to treatment regimens, and provide patients and families with important coping skills. Thus, the Children's Medication Algorithm Project (CMAP) incorporated a psychoeducational program into the medication algorithm created to improve treatment of children with ADHD and/or depression in the Texas public mental health sector. This article describes the process by which a comprehensive educational program was developed in partnership with parents and advocates. The final program is described, as well as a pilot study to examine the feasibility of implementation in four community clinics.

Idiopathic Talipes Equinovarus (ITEV) (Clubfeet) in Texas.
Moorthi RN, Hashmi SS, Langois P, Canfield M, Waller DK, Hecht JT.
Am J Med Genet A. 2005 Feb 1;132(4):376-80.
Idiopathic talipes equinovarus (ITEV) is the most common form of clubfoot with a birth prevalence of 1 per 1,000 births. Serial casting and surgical correction impose a substantial financial burden on families and the health care system. While the etiology of ITEV is considered to be complex, the causes remain elusive. Genetic, maternal, and environmental factors have been suggested to play an etiologic role. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of ITEV and define maternal and environmental factors associated with ITEV in Texas from 1996 to 1999. Data on 682 cases of nonsyndromic ITEV were compared with all births (n = 923,543) in Texas during the same period. The overall prevalence and prevalence odds ratios (PORs) were calculated for gender, year of birth, public health region (PHR), race, maternal age, education, folic acid fortification, and parity. The overall prevalence of ITEV was 0.74/1,000 or 1/1,354 live births. Adjusted PORs were similar among blacks and US and foreign-born Hispanics (POR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.69-1.21; POR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.79-1.25; and POR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.74-1.19), respectively, compared to whites. College education and higher parity were significantly associated with a lower risk of giving birth to offspring with ITEV. Babies born after folic acid fortification of grains had a very small decrease in ITEV that may be due to chance. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Unplanned Pregnancy among Active Duty Servicewomen, U.S. Air Force, 2001.
Robbins AS, Chao SY, Frost LZ, Fonseca VP.
Mil Med. 2005 Jan;170(1):38-43.
Unplanned pregnancy is a major public health problem in the United States. Although the U.S. Air Force has the highest proportion of active duty women of any of the U.S. military services, there are no published data on the occurrence of unplanned pregnancy among active duty Air Force (ADAF) women. Civilian female interviewers conducted telephone interviews with a random sample of 2,348 ADAF women during early 2002, using questions that were closely based on the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth. During 2001, approximately 12% of ADAF women had one or more pregnancies. By National Survey of Family Growth criteria, approximately 54% of these pregnancies were unplanned. Thus, approximately 7% of ADAF women had one or more unplanned pregnancies during 2001. Roughly one-half of unplanned pregnancies represented contraceptive nonuse and the other half represented contraceptive failure or misuse. Unplanned pregnancy is a serious and frequently occurring problem among ADAF women, with many opportunities for prevention.

Maternal Obesity, Gestational Diabetes, and Central Nervous System Birth Defects.
Anderson JL, Waller DK, Canfield MA, Shaw GM, Watkins ML, Werler MM.
Epidemiology. 2005 Jan;16(1):87-92
BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity and diabetes are both associated with increased risk of congenital central nervous system (CNS) malformations in the offspring and may share a common underlying mechanism. Our objective was to evaluate whether gestational diabetes influenced the association of prepregnancy maternal obesity and risks for CNS birth defects. METHODS: This Texas population-based case-control study evaluated births occurring January 1997 through June 2001. Data came from structured telephone interviews. Cases (n=477) were mothers of offspring with anencephaly (n=120), spina bifida (n=184), holoprosencephaly (n=49), or isolated hydrocephaly (n=124). Controls (n=497) were mothers of live infants without abnormalities randomly selected from the same hospitals as cases. Response rates were approximately 60% for both cases and controls. We evaluated maternal obesity (body mass index > or =30.0 kg/m) and risks for CNS birth defects, as well as whether gestational diabetes influenced the risks. RESULTS: After adjusting for maternal ethnicity, age, education, smoking, alcohol use, and periconceptional vitamin use, obese women had substantially increased risks of delivering offspring with anencephaly (odds ratio=2.3; 95% confidence interval=1.2-4.3), spina bifida (2.8; 1.7-4.5), or isolated hydrocephaly (2.7; 1.5-5.0), but not holoprosencephaly (1.4; 0.5-3.8). Odds ratios were higher for the joint effects of maternal obesity and gestational diabetes, with evidence for interaction on a multiplicative scale. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal obesity and gestational diabetes may increase the risk of CNS birth defects through shared causal mechanisms.

Impact of Legislation on Illicit Substance Surveillance by Poison Centers in Texas.
Forrester MB.
J Registry Management 2005;32:118-123.
ABSTRACT: This study observed and compared surveillance of selected illicit substances by poison centers in Texas before and after a state law was enacted on September 1, 1999, requiring mandatory reporting of overdoses of certain controlled substances. Penetrance for cocaine, heroin, and marijuana calls received by the Texas Poison Center Network ( TPCN ) was compared for several time periods. The call distribution by various other factors was determined before and after legislation enactment and compared. The cocaine penetrance increased by 69%, heroin by 30%, and marijuana by 100% between 1999 and 2000. Comparing cases reported before and after legislation enactment, statistically significant differences were observed for exposure site, caller site, management site, medical outcome, and geography. While the evidence for proof is not present, these results are consistent with the premise that enactment of this legislation appears to have altered the types of cocaine, heroin, and marijuana exposures reported to the TPCN.

Occupational Physician Perceptions of Bioterrorism.
Sterling, D.A., Clements, B., Rebmann, T., Shadel, B.N., Stewart, L.M., Thomas, R., Evans, R.G.
Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2005;208(1-2):127-34.
The rationale for most preparedness training of healthcare professionals is based on the assumption that most persons infected following a biological incident will present first to emergency departments of acute care facilities or to ambulatory settings such as private physician offices, and such incidences would be recognized, appropriately treated, and reported to the local health departments. However, an alternative first point of contact is industry, a location where workers gather and disperse on a regular and documented basis, and require healthcare. In industry there are health professionals responsible for the health, safety and on-site well-being of the workforce and surrounding community; these professionals are in a position for early recognition, surveillance, and isolation. Targeted education must be provided to these health professionals. To address perceptions of risk and preferred educational delivery methods for bioterrorism and emerging infections-related materials, a survey of occupational physicians was performed during the spring of 2001. Within the 2 months following the September 11 terrorist attack and subsequent anthrax bioterrorism event, and before release of any results from the first survey, a follow-up mail survey was initiated in November 2001. Response rate to the pre- and post-September 11 survey were 58% (n = 56) and 33% (n = 33), respectively. No significant demographic differences were observed between the respondents of the pre- and post-surveys. Perceptions of likelihood of another bioterrorism event increased between surveys, as would be expected; however, a tendency to believe that it would not happen locally persisted. Even though over 90% of the physicians had received immediate training following September 11, additional training/education needs were demonstrated. Although training and education modules can be designed without information based on the population that can be on the receiving end, it rarely accomplishes its goal. Results from this survey can serve as a base for designing various levels of targeted training and educational material specific to the perceived need, method of obtaining information and the format considered to be most conducive for learning. Potential consequences from lack of bioterrorism preparedness due to low perception of need and threat awareness need to be addressed.

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Last updated February 28, 2017