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Medical and Research Library News - August 2017

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News and training opportunities
Cool websites and reports on hot topics
Interesting journal articles
New Books
Ebooks

August 2017

mrl-diamondNews and training opportunities

Substance Use Disorders Webinar Series: Alleviating Stigma, Treatment Strategies, Community Resources & Stories from the Front Lines. August 3, 2017 - January 9, 2018. This four-part webinar series will look at substance use disorders and the opioid epidemic. See https://nnlm.gov/classes/substance-use-disorders-webinar-series-alleviating-stigma-treatment-strategies-community 

The Healthier Texas Summit, Austin, TX, November 6–7, 2017. Sponsored by It’s Time Texas and The University of Texas System. the Healthier Texas Summit offers informative sessions, town hall conversations, and interactive workshops, with education credits available for numerous professions. See https://healthiertexassummit.com/ 

Improving Population Health: Now, Across People’s Lives, and Across Generations to Come, AT&T Executive Education and Conference Center, The University of Texas at Austin, October 2-4, 2017. Connecting researchers and stakeholders from disparate disciplines to better understand the multiple determinants of health and health disparities can generate new knowledge to advance population health. See http://ipsr.ku.edu/pophealth/ 

RDoC - Fear & Anxiety: From Mechanisms to Implementation, Recorded webinar. Presenters from the NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) Unit, the Delaware Project, and the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies discussed fear and anxiety from different perspectives, including basic laboratory research, treatment in clinics, and graduate school instruction for clinicians. See https://www.nimh.nih.gov/news/science-news/2017/webinar-rdoc-fear-amp-anxiety-from-mechanisms-to-implementation.shtml 


mrl-diamondCool websites and reports on hot topics

Aiming Higher: This website reports the results from the Commonwealth Fund Scorecard on State Health System Performance, 2017 Edition. Texas remains tied for 41st in overall performance on this scorecard based on several different health indicators. See http://www.commonwealthfund.org/interactives/2017/mar/state-scorecard/ 

Building Skills for a More Strategic Public Health Workforce:  A Call to Action, National Consortium for Public Health Workforce Development, 2017. Public health leaders must work together to identify, incentivize, and implement new workforce development strategies that move beyond our core scientific disciplines. To facilitate achieving this Call to Action, the Consortium developed five recommendations that are essential to prioritizing strategic skills among the public health workforce. See http://www.debeaumont.org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/Building-Skills-for-a-More-Strategic-Public-Health-Workforce.pdf 

Building Sustainable Financing Structures for Population Health: Insights from Non-Health Sectors: Proceedings of a Workshop (2017), National Academies of Science, Engineering, Medicine. In October 2016, a workshop explored sustainable financing structures that reflect a recognition of the health and non-health factors that shape the well-being of U.S. communities. The goals of the workshop were to learn from the long-term, sustainable financing strategies used in other sectors, to explore how those approaches could be applied to population health, and to consider structures that work across sectors. See https://www.nap.edu/catalog/24760/building-sustainable-financing-structures-for-population-health-insights-from-non  

The Change Management Questionnaire Checklist, developed by the Public Health Foundation, supports efforts to make a substantive change to an entrenched culture. By answering a set of guiding questions, change leaders can build and sustain a conducive change environment. See http://www.phf.org/resourcestools/Documents/Change_Management_Questionnaire_Checklist.pdf 

Community Violence as a Population Health Issue: Proceedings of a Workshop (2017). On June 16, 2016, the Roundtable on Population Health Improvement held a workshop to explore the influence of trauma and violence on communities. It highlighted examples of community-based organizations using trauma-informed approaches to treat violence and build safe and healthy communities. Presentations showcased examples that can serve as models and shared lessons learned. This publication summarizes the presentation and discussion. See https://www.nap.edu/catalog/23661/community-violence-as-a-population-health-issue-proceedings-of-a 

Enabling Precision Medicine: The Role of Genetics in Clinical Drug Development: Proceedings of a Workshop, National Academies Press, July 2017. This workshop examined successes, challenges, and possible best practices for effectively using genetic information in the design and implementation of clinical trials to support the development of precision medicines, including exploring the potential advantages and disadvantages of such trials across a variety of disease areas. See https://www.nap.edu/catalog/24829/enabling-precision-medicine-the-role-of-genetics-in-clinical-drug 

Fighting AIDS in the Deep South: Glimmers of Hope from Stateline by the Pew Charitable Trusts discusses the difficulty and successes in testing and treating HIV-positive people in the South, especially in rural areas. See http://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/blogs/stateline/2017/06/13/fighting-aids-in-the-deep-south-glimmers-of-hope 

A Guide for Syndromic Surveillance for Heat-Related Health Outcomes in North America by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation.
This Guide outlines the steps required to create or enhance a syndromic surveillance system to monitor extreme heat events, and highlights the experiences of three participating pilot communities from Canada, Mexico and United States. See http://www3.cec.org/islandora/en/item/11719-guide-syndromic-surveillance-heat-related-health-outcomes-in-north-america-en.pdf 

Health Literacy Insights for Health Crises. Parson K, Allen MP, Alvarado-Little W, Rudd R. National Academy of Medicine Discussion Paper, July 17, 2017. This paper provides guidance on crafting a high-quality message in times of public health crisis. See https://nam.edu/health-literacy-insights-for-health-crises/ 

Key Findings: How State Health Agencies Can Support Diabetes Prevention and Control Initiatives, ASTHO, July 2017. This report identifies actions that state health agencies can take to promote diabetes prevention and control efforts. The findings demonstrate the strengths of public health and highlight areas where states may benefit from greater coordination and integration with healthcare partners. See http://www.astho.org/Programs/Prevention/Chronic-Disease/Key-Findings-Diabetes-Prevention-and-Control_Final/ 

Rural and Urban Utilization of the Emergency Department for Mental Health and Substance Abuse, is a policy brief from the Rural Health Reform Policy Research Center. This brief explores and compares the use of the emergency department for mental health or substance use issues among urban, large rural, small rural, and isolated small rural communities. See https://ruralhealth.und.edu/assets/355-922/rural-urban-utilization-emergency-department.pdf 

Stress in Early Life and Childhood Obesity Risk in Healthy Eating Research, June 2017. This research review summarizes and provides examples from the scientific literature on the association between early life stress exposure and childhood obesity risk. The review finds that there are multiple, highly intertwined biological, behavioral, and cross-cutting pathways that are altered by acute and chronic stress exposure in ways that contribute to heightened obesity risk. See http://healthyeatingresearch.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/her_stress_obesity_5-30.pdf 

Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participants' Employment Characteristics and Barriers to Work. Cambridge, MA: Mathematica Policy Research. Relatively little is known about the labor force participation and employment decisions of SNAP participants, job characteristics among employed participants, and barriers to work among participants who are unemployed or out of the labor force. This report helps to fill this gap by using the most recently available national longitudinal survey data to examine the employment experiences of SNAP participants. See https://www.mathematica-mpr.com/our-publications-and-findings/publications/supplemental-nutrition-assistance-program-participants-employment-characteristics-and-barriers 


mrl-diamondInteresting journal articles

Behavioral counseling to promote a healthful diet and physical activity for cardiovascular disease prevention in adults without cardiovascular risk factors: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. US Preventive Services Task Force, et al. JAMA. 2017 Jul 11;318(2):167-174.
Importance: Adults who adhere to national guidelines for a healthful diet and physical activity have lower rates of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than those who do not. All persons, regardless of their risk status for cardiovascular disease (CVD), can gain health benefits from healthy eating behaviors and appropriate physical activity. Objective: To update the 2012 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on behavioral counseling to promote a healthful diet and physical activity for cardiovascular disease prevention among adults without obesity who do not have cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia, abnormal blood glucose levels, or diabetes). Evidence Review: The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on whether primary care-relevant counseling interventions to promote a healthful diet, physical activity, or both improve health outcomes, intermediate outcomes associated with CVD, or dietary or physical activity behaviors in adults; interventions to reduce sedentary behaviors; and the harms of behavioral counseling interventions. Findings: Counseling interventions result in improvements in healthful behaviors and small but potentially important improvements in intermediate outcomes, including reductions in blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and improvements in measures of adiposity. The overall magnitude of benefit related to these interventions is positive but small. The potential harms are at most small, leading the USPSTF to conclude that these interventions have a small net benefit for adults without obesity who do not have CVD risk factors. Conclusions and Recommendation: The USPSTF recommends that primary care professionals individualize the decision to offer or refer adults without obesity who do not have hypertension, dyslipidemia, abnormal blood glucose levels, or diabetes to behavioral counseling to promote a healthful diet and physical activity. Existing evidence indicates a positive but small benefit of behavioral counseling for the prevention of CVD in this population. Persons who are interested and ready to make behavioral changes may be most likely to benefit from behavioral counseling. (C recommendation).

The benefits and challenges of managing asthma in Hispanic families in south Texas: a mixed-methods study. Carrillo G, Perez-Patron MJ, Lucio RL, et al. Front Public Health. 2017 Jun 30;5:150. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2017.00150.
Background: Understanding the experience of Hispanic parents of children diagnosed with asthma can be useful in the delivery of effective and meaningful asthma education. In order to assess the needs of Hispanic families with asthmatic children in South Texas, investigators utilized a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods. Objectives: This study aimed (1) to assess the impact of asthma in the quality of life of Hispanic children and their families and (2) to identify barriers and challenges to asthma management as perceived by parents of children diagnosed with asthma. Methods: A mixed-methods study included a quality-of-life survey and focus group discussions. The Children's Health Survey for Asthma (CHSA) was completed by 90 parents of children with asthma. Three focus groups were conducted with 15 low-income, Hispanic parents of asthmatic children to assess their needs and experience in managing the disease. Results: Results from the CHSA showed that asthma significantly affects the quality of life of children with asthma and their families, particularly the emotional dimensions and the child's physical health. Fifty-three percent of the children had visited the emergency room, and 51% had been hospitalized due to asthma. One out of five parents had missed work, and 27% of children had missed school in the past 2 weeks due to the child's asthma. In the focus group discussions, the key themes emerging included lack of asthma knowledge, the burden of disease for asthmatic children and their families, and the importance of asthma education and self-management behaviors for asthma control. Conclusion: One of the main challenges faced by Hispanic families with asthmatic children is the lack of asthma-related knowledge to help understand and control their children's disease. Lack of knowledge and self-management skills lead to significant stress and anxiety among children with asthma and their parents. Results highlight that while asthma has an effect on the quality of life of children and their families, particularly on the emotional health domain, a wide dissemination of asthma management education in different settings might help prevent asthma attacks and improve symptom control among those suffering from this disease along the US-Mexico border.

Caregiver involvement in behavioural health services in the context of child welfare service referrals: a qualitative study. Jolles MP, Flick JAJ, Wells R, Chuang E. Child Fam Soc Work. 2017 May;22(2):648-659.
Human service agencies serve a growing number of adults with behavioral health needs. Despite these agencies' key role in identifying need and facilitating services, many individuals do not receive care or end services prematurely. Few studies have explored the experiences of families referred to behavioral health services by such agencies or the extent to which families' perceptions of service need align with those of treatment providers and frontline workers. This study presents findings from a qualitative study of caregivers involved with child welfare agencies who were referred to behavioral health services. Researchers reviewed agencies' case records and conducted in-depth interviews with 16 caregivers, 9 child welfare caseworkers, and 12 behavioral health treatment counselors. Findings suggest that when deciding to engage in services, caregivers weigh not only their individual and family behavioral health needs but also potential agency intervention, including loss of child custody. Many professionals reported that involvement with a child welfare agency hindered the caregiver's disclosure of behavioral health care needs. Implications for managers and practitioners are discussed.

Economics and obesity policy. Lusk JL. Int J Obes (Lond). 2017 Jun;41(6):831-834.
This paper elucidates the challenges surrounding the economics of some popular obesity-related policy proposals. Solid economic justifications for anti-obesity policies are often lacking, and evidence suggests policies like fat and soda taxes or restrictions on food stamp spending are unlikely to substantively affect obesity prevalence. In short, many of the same factors that make obesity such a complicated and multifaceted issue extend to the economic analysis of public health policies.

Evolution of guidelines on peanut allergy and peanut introduction in infants: a review. Anvari S, Chokshi NY, Kamili QU, Davis CM. JAMA Pediatr. 2017 Jan 1;171(1):77-82.
Importance: The reported prevalence of peanut allergy among children in the United States has increased more than 3-fold in the last 20 years. Medical guidelines on the introduction of peanut as well as other allergenic foods have evolved with the emerging evidence that an early introduction to these foods is more beneficial than a delayed introduction. This review highlights the studies that have led to the evolving guidelines on peanut introduction in infants. Observations: The prevalence of peanut allergy has increased despite the publication of guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics in 2000, which recommended a delayed introduction of peanut. Since the 2000 guidelines, studies have provided evidence to support an earlier rather than delayed introduction. As a result, the American Academy of Pediatrics updated their guidelines in 2008 to promote peanut introduction during infancy. Current evidence continues to support the benefits of an earlier rather than delayed introduction. Conclusions and Relevance: Over the years, guidelines on the introduction of peanut have evolved, and recent literature suggests that an earlier rather than delayed introduction is beneficial to prevent peanut allergies in infants.

The latest in vaccine policies: selected issues in school vaccinations, healthcare worker vaccinations, and pharmacist vaccination authority laws. Barraza L, Schmit C, Hoss A. J Law Med Ethics. 2017 Mar;45(1_suppl):16-19.
This paper discusses recent changes to state legal frameworks for mandatory vaccination in the context of school and healthcare worker vaccination. It then discusses state laws that allow pharmacists the authority to vaccinate.

Newborn sequencing in genomic medicine and public health. Berg JS, Agrawal PB, Bailey DB Jr, et al. Pediatrics. 2017 Feb;139(2). pii: e20162252. doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-2252. Epub 2017 Jan 17.
The rapid development of genomic sequencing technologies has decreased the cost of genetic analysis to the extent that it seems plausible that genome-scale sequencing could have widespread availability in pediatric care. Genomic sequencing provides a powerful diagnostic modality for patients who manifest symptoms of monogenic disease and an opportunity to detect health conditions before their development. However, many technical, clinical, ethical, and societal challenges should be addressed before such technology is widely deployed in pediatric practice. This article provides an overview of the Newborn Sequencing in Genomic Medicine and Public Health Consortium, which is investigating the application of genome-scale sequencing in newborns for both diagnosis and screening.

Performance and management in the public sector: testing a model of relative risk aversion. Nicholson-Crotty S, Nicholson-Crotty J, Fernandez S. Public Administration Review. 2017 July/Aug;77(4):603–14.
Research has demonstrated that management influences the performance of public organizations, but almost no research has explored how the success or failure of a public organization influences the decisions of those who manage it. Arguing that many decisions by public managers are analogous to risky choice, the authors use a well-validated model of relative risk aversion to understand how such choices are influenced by managers’ perceptions of organizational performance. They theorize that managers will be less likely to encourage innovation or give discretion to employees when they are just reaching their goals relative to other performance conditions. Analyses of responses to the 2011 and 2013 Federal Employee Viewpoint Surveys provide considerable support for these assertions. The findings have significant implications for our understanding of the relationship between management and performance in public organizations.

The population health benefits of a healthy lifestyle: life expectancy increased and onset of disability delayed. Mehta N, Myrskyla M. Health Aff (Millwood). 2017 Jul 19. pii: 10.1377/hlthaff.2016.1569. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2016.1569. [Epub ahead of print]
A key determinant of population health is the behavioral profile of a population. Nearly 80 percent of Americans reach their fifties having smoked cigarettes, been obese, or both. It is unknown to what extent risky behaviors (for example, smoking, having a poor diet, being physically inactive, and consuming an excessive amount of alcohol) collectively are reducing the health and life expectancy of the US population, or what improvements might be achievable in their absence. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study, we studied people ages fifty and older who had never smoked, who were not obese, and who consumed alcohol moderately. Compared to the whole US population, those with such a favorable behavioral profile had a life expectancy at age fifty that was seven years longer, and they experienced a delay in the onset of disability of up to six years. These results provide a benchmark for evaluating the massively damaging effects that behavioral risks have on health at older ages and the importance of prioritizing policies to implement behavioral-based interventions.

Pregnancy outcomes after maternal Zika virus infection during pregnancy - U.S. Territories, January 1, 2016-April 25, 2017.
Shapiro-Mendoza CK, Rice ME, Galang RR, et al. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 Jun 16;66(23):615-621.

Pregnant women living in or traveling to areas with local mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission are at risk for Zika virus infection, which can lead to severe fetal and infant brain abnormalities and microcephaly. In February 2016, CDC recommended 1) routine testing for Zika virus infection of asymptomatic pregnant women living in areas with ongoing local Zika virus transmission at the first prenatal care visit, 2) retesting during the second trimester for women who initially test negative, and 3) testing of pregnant women with signs or symptoms consistent with Zika virus disease (e.g., fever, rash, arthralgia, or conjunctivitis) at any time during pregnancy. To collect information about pregnant women with laboratory evidence of recent possible Zika virus infection* and outcomes in their fetuses and infants, CDC established pregnancy and infant registries. During January 1, 2016-April 25, 2017, U.S. territories† with local transmission of Zika virus reported 2,549 completed pregnancies (live births and pregnancy losses at any gestational age) with laboratory evidence of recent possible Zika virus infection; 5% of fetuses or infants resulting from these pregnancies had birth defects potentially associated with Zika virus infection. Among completed pregnancies with positive nucleic acid tests confirming Zika infection identified in the first, second, and third trimesters, the percentage of fetuses or infants with possible Zika-associated birth defects was 8%, 5%, and 4%, respectively. Among liveborn infants, 59% had Zika laboratory testing results reported to the pregnancy and infant registries. Identification and follow-up of infants born to women with laboratory evidence of recent possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy permits timely and appropriate clinical intervention services.

The science of pep talks: to fire up your team, draw on a research-proven, three-part formula. McGinn D. Harvard Business Review. 2017 Jul/Aug;95(4):133-137. 
The ability to deliver an energizing pep talk is a prerequisite for any business leader. But few managers receive formal training in how to give one. Instead, they learn mostly by emulating inspirational bosses, coaches, or even fictional characters. However, research shows there is a science to psyching people up for better performance. According to motivating language theory, most winning formulas include three key elements: direction giving, or describing precisely how to do the task at hand; expressions of empathy, or concern for the performer; and meaning-making language, which explains why the task is important. All the evidence suggests that, once leaders understand these three elements, they can learn to use them more skillfully

Statistical methods used in the public health literature and implications for training of public health professionals. Hayat MJ, Powell A, Johnson T, Cadwell BL. PLoS One. 2017 Jun 7;12(6):e0179032. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0179032.
Statistical literacy and knowledge is needed to read and understand the public health literature. The purpose of this study was to quantify basic and advanced statistical methods used in public health research. We randomly sampled 216 published articles from seven top tier general public health journals. Studies were reviewed by two readers and a standardized data collection form completed for each article. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and frequency distributions. Results were summarized for statistical methods used in the literature, including descriptive and inferential statistics, modeling, advanced statistical techniques, and statistical software used. Approximately 81.9% of articles reported an observational study design and 93.1% of articles were substantively focused. Descriptive statistics in table or graphical form were reported in more than 95% of the articles, and statistical inference reported in more than 76% of the studies reviewed. These results reveal the types of statistical methods currently used in the public health literature. Although this study did not obtain information on what should be taught, information on statistical methods being used is useful for curriculum development in graduate health sciences education, as well as making informed decisions about continuing education for public health professionals.

Stop the meeting madness: how to free up time for meaningful work. Perlow LA, Hadley CN, Eun E. Harvard Business Review. 2017 Jul/Aug; 95(4):62-69. 
Many executives feel overwhelmed by meetings, and no wonder: On average, they spend nearly 23 hours a week in them, up from less than 10 hours in the 1960s. What’s more, the meetings are often poorly timed, badly run, or both. We can all joke about how painful they are, say the authors, but that pain has real consequences for teams and organizations. Every minute spent in a wasteful meeting eats into solo work that’s essential for creativity and efficiency. Chopped-up schedules interrupt deep thinking, so people come to work early, stay late, or use weekends for quiet time to concentrate. And dysfunctional meeting behaviors are associated with lower levels of market share, innovation, and employment stability. The authors have found that real improvement requires systemic change, not discrete fixes. They describe a five-step process for that—along with the diagnostic work you’ll need to do in advance.


mrl-diamondNew Books

1. Appreciative Inquiry for Change Management: Using AI to Facilitate Organizational Development, 2nd ed., by Sarah Lewis, et al.
2. Bargaining with the Devil: When to Negotiate, When to Fight by Robert Mnookin.
3. The Cholera Years: The United States in 1832, 1849, and 1866, 2nd ed., by Charles E. Rosenberg.
4. Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Prevention, and Control, 4th ed., by Ross C. Brownson, et al. 
5. Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods edited by Yvonne Salfinger and Mary Lou Tortorello.
6. The Elements of User Experience: User-Centered Design for the Web and Beyond by Jesse James Garrett.
7. The First Year: Type 2 Diabetes: An Essential Guide for the Newly Diagnosed, 3rd ed., by Gretchen Becker.
8. HBR's 10 Must Reads on Change Management by Harvard Business Review.
9. Java: The Complete Reference, 9th ed., by Herbert Schildt.
10. Just Promoted! A 12-Month Road Map for Success in Your New Leadership Role, 2nd ed., by Edward Betof.
11.Key Performance Indicators for Government and Non Profit Agencies: Implementing Winning KPIs by David Parmenter.
12.The PTSD workbook, 3rd ed., by Mary Beth Williams and Soili Poijula.
13.Remedy and Reaction: The Peculiar American Struggle over Health Care Reform by Paul Starr.
14. Thriving with Social Anxiety by Hattie C. Cooper.
15. What Motivates Me: Put Your Passions to Work by Adrian Gostick and Chester Elton.
16. Windows 10 for Dummies by Andy Rathbone.


mrl-diamondEbooks

To check out any of the following ebooks, go to the library catalog at http://texashealthlibrary.com. Type in the title in the search box and then click on the electronic link. If you have difficulties or want to access these at home, please contact library@dshs.texas.gov or call 512-776-7559.

1. 1,001 GRE Practice Questions for Dummies. 
2. Anthropology and Public Health: Bridging Differences in Culture and Society by Robert A. Hahn and Marcia Claire Inhorn.
3. Clinical Laboratory Management by Paul Bachner and Lynne Shore Garcia.
4. Financial Management of Health Care Organizations: An Introduction to Fundamental Tools, Concepts and Applications by William N. Zelman.
5. Public Health Leadership: Strategies for Innovation in Population Health and Social Determinants by Richard Callahan and Dru Bhattacharya.
6. Refugee Health Care: An Essential Medical Guide by Aniyizhai Annamalai. 
7. Understanding and Changing Your Management Style: Assessments and Tools for Self-Development by Robert C. Benfari.


*For More Information:  Employees may contact the Medical and Research Library at library@dshs.texas.gov, call 512-776-7559, or come by Moreton Building, Room M-652, to borrow a print book, receive password access to a journal, receive other research assistance, or to obtain full-text of the articles mentioned in this month's news. If you are not located on the main campus in Austin, simply let us know what you would like to borrow and we will mail it to you.

Fine print section: If any of the internet links do not open for you, please let us know and we will send you what you need. The MRL Library News e-mail is sent about once a month or when important library news or events occur. If you have co-workers who would like to subscribe, please e-mail library@dshs.texas.gov. If for any reason you would like to unsubscribe, please send an e-mail to library@dshs.texas.gov with Unsubscribe in the subject line. Recent issues of this newsletter are on the web at http://www.dshs.texas.gov/library/news.shtm. Thank you!


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Last updated August 2, 2017