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Medical and Research Library News - October 2018

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News and training opportunities
Cool websites and reports on hot topics*
Interesting journal articles*
New eBooks*

October 2018

mrl-diamondNews and training opportunities

Note: The following webinars and online classes are not affiliated with DSHS or the DSHS Library. They are presented here as opportunities to learn more information of interest to public health personnel.

Oct 4, 2018; Noon – 1:00 p.m. Pulling All the Behavior Change Ideas Together. Behavior change is not easy. If it were, we would all exercise regularly and eat healthy. Learn how you can help change food safety behavior through this webinar series presented by the Partnership for Food Safety Education in conjunction with the Social Marketing Association of North America. https://register.gotowebinar.com/register/1179070478599970306

October 16, 2018; Noon – 1:00 p.m. Bringing Local Data to Life: Using New Life Expectancy Data to Spark Change. Join the United States Small-Area Life Expectancy Estimates Project, City Health Dashboard, and Urban Institute, along with the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation for a webinar exploring how newly released local life expectancy data can help spark change to improve health and well-being for all. https://www.apha.org/events-and-meetings/apha-calendar/webinar-events/2018/bringing-local-data-to-life

October 17, 2018; Noon – 1 p.m. Pre-conception Environmental Exposures and Children's Health. An emerging body of evidence suggests that environmental exposures before conception could impact the health of offspring. These effects may be transmitted via epigenetic pathways in the oocyte or sperm to subsequent generations. However, few studies have systematically investigated the potential for pre-conception endocrine disrupting chemical exposures to influence children's health. In this webinar Dr. Joseph Braun, Assistant Professor in the Department of Epidemiology at the Brown University School of Public Health, will review animal and epidemiological studies showing effects of pre-conception exposures on offspring health, as well as studies investigating potential mechanisms. https://www.healthandenvironment.org/webinars/96444

October 18, 2018; 8:00 a.m. - 9:00 a.m. Alzheimer's Disease and the Importance of Accurate Death Reporting. It is estimated that as many as 50 percent of people with Alzheimer’s disease or another form of dementia (ADRD) do not receive a formal diagnosis. In addition, when a diagnosis is received, it is often after the dementia has progressed significantly. Many of the signs, symptoms, and risk factors associated with Neurodegenerative disease are unrecognized or misinterpreted and require an improved understanding of differential diagnostic strategies. Care of the patient with dementia is often complicated by chronic diseases that impact the prognosis and contribute to the underlying cause of death. This webcast will provide an overview of the impact of Alzheimer’s Disease, including the disparities in diagnosis and treatment, the importance of early diagnosis, and the problem of underreporting of deaths related to Alzheimer’s Disease. Presented by the School of Public Health at the University at Albany, State University of New York. https://www.albany.edu/sph/cphce/phl_1018.shtml

October 18, 2018; Noon – 1:00 p.m. Using Recovery Coaches in Substance Use Disorder Treatment. This webinar, sponsored by the National Library of Medicine, will present an overview of the Recovery Coaching program at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center and will share the data collected about the use of recovery coaching in the treatment of substance use disorder. https://nnlm.gov/class/using-recovery-coaches-substance-use-disorder-treatment/8878

October 25, 2018; Noon – 4 p.m. Disrupting the Health Care Landscape: New Roles for Familiar Players. NEJM Catalyst’s webinar hosted by NewYork-Presbyterian, brings together top minds from health care to guide executives, clinical leaders, clinicians, and investors on how to pick the right partner for these evolving times, which integration models to avoid, and how technology can provide a competitive advantage. http://join.catalyst.nejm.org/events/new-models-of-care-newmarketplace2018/register/?utm_source=nejmlist&utm_medium=email&utm_content=email1_nejm&utm_campaign=new-models-of-care-newmarketplace2018

October 30, 2018; 1 p.m. – 2 p.m. Leadership Skills to Improve Health and Safety. Improving health and safety and transforming culture are acts of leadership. But what leadership skills are necessary to support and sustain effective actions?  This webinar will explore different leadership skills that are important to cultural transformation applicable to a variety of settings. This free webinar is presented by The Montana State University Center for Health and Safety Culture. https://www.apha.org/events-and-meetings/apha-calendar/webinar-events/2018/leadership-skills

mrl-diamondCool websites and reports on hot topics*

Behavioral Health Conditions in Children and Youth Exposed to Natural Disasters -This issue of the Supplemental Research Bulletin focuses on mental health and substance use (behavioral health) conditions in children and adolescents following exposure to natural disasters such as hurricanes, tornadoes, and earthquakes. From Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). https://www.samhsa.gov/sites/default/files/srb-childrenyouth-8-22-18.pdf

The Household Products Database - This database from the National Library of Medicine provides health and safety information on more than 18,000 consumer brands. https://hpd.nlm.nih.gov/index.htm

In Focus: Reducing Racial Disparities in Health Care by Confronting Racism - This issue of Transforming Care offers examples of health systems that are making efforts to identify implicit bias and structural racism in their organizations, and developing customized approaches to engaging and supporting patients to ameliorate their effects. From the Commonwealth Fund. https://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/newsletter-article/2018/sep/focus-reducing-racial-disparities-health-care-confronting

Population Health: The Translation of Research to Policy - This report uses six diverse case studies to provide examples of policy change that addressed multiple determinants of population health. From the Milbank Memorial Fund. https://www.milbank.org/publications/population-health-the-translation-of-research-to-policy/

Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2017 – This report presents statistics and trends for STDs in the United States through 2017. This annual publication is intended as a reference document for policy makers, program managers, health planners, researchers, and others who are concerned with the public health implications of these diseases. From National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP), CDC. https://www.cdc.gov/std/stats17/default.htm 

The World’s Deadliest Poison – This supplemental content on JPHMP Direct is the second case study from the Journal of Public Health Management & Practice’s Backstories in Epidemiology: True Medical Mysteries series. It gives an account of botulism in a New York City family resulting in two fatalities. https://jphmpdirect.com/2018/07/30/the-worlds-deadliest-poison/

mrl-diamondInteresting journal articles*

Brandt HM, Turner-McGrievy G, Friedman DB, et al. Examining the role of Twitter in response and recovery during and after historic flooding in South Carolina. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2018 Aug 31. [Epub ahead of print]
CONTEXT: Social media has played an increasing role in the response to emergency situations through information exchange and efforts to promote recovery. Understanding more about how social media users share and re-share information is particularly important to help emergency response entities determine best strategies for expanding reach and impact through social media in disseminating emergency messages.
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the role and use of Twitter as a response and recovery strategy before, during, and after historic rainfall and flooding in the Midlands region of the greater Columbia, South Carolina, area in October 2015.
DESIGN: A cross-sectional, thematic, and descriptive examination of Twitter data across 4 time periods (before the historic rainfall and flooding, during, immediately after a boil water advisory period, and 6 months later) was conducted.
SETTING: Twitter posts containing "#SCFlood" with a focus on the Midlands region were extracted and analyzed.
RESULTS: The most common themes of tweets across all 4 time periods were weather conditions, devastation description, resource distribution, volunteerism, actions to reduce threats to health, and appreciation. Tweets mostly originated from individual users, followed by media outlets, governmental agencies, and nonprofit agencies. Tweets from the first 3 time periods were largely focused on built and natural environment devastation and action to reduce threats to health, and tweets from the fourth time period were primarily focused on cleanup and repair.
CONCLUSIONS: Twitter was utilized widely as a communication tool to provide time-sensitive and critical information before, during, and after the event. Ensuring that key social media users have developed disaster communication strategies inclusive of Twitter seems important in aiding response to and recovery from natural disasters.

Flannery B, Chung JR, Monto AS, et al. Influenza vaccine effectiveness in the United States during the 2016-2017 season. Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Sep 11. [Epub ahead of print]
BACKGROUND: In recent influenza seasons, the effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccines against circulating A(H3N2) virus has been lower than against A(H1N1)pdm09 and B viruses, even when circulating viruses remained antigenically similar to vaccine components.
METHODS: During the 2016-2017 influenza season, vaccine effectiveness (VE) across age groups and vaccine types was examined among outpatients with acute respiratory illness at 5 US sites using a test-negative design that compared the odds of vaccination among reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction-confirmed influenza positives and negatives.
RESULTS: Among 7083 enrollees, 1342 (19%) tested positive for influenza A(H3N2), 648 (9%) were positive for influenza B (including B/Yamagata, n = 577) and 5040(71%) were influenza negative. Vaccine effectiveness was 40% (95% confidence interval [CI], 32% to 46%) against any influenza virus, 33% (95%CI, 23% to 41%) against influenza A(H3N2) viruses and 53% (95%CI, 43% to 61%) against influenza B viruses.
CONCLUSIONS: The 2016-2017 influenza vaccines provided moderate protection against any influenza among outpatients, but were less protective against influenza A(H3N2) viruses than B viruses. Approaches to improving effectiveness against A(H3N2) viruses are needed.

Gross t, Laugese MJ. The price of health care: why is the United States an outlier? J Health Polit Policy Law. 2018;43(5): 771-791.
Higher prices are increasingly recognized as a significant cause of the outlier status of the United States in health care expenditures. At the same time, various explanations are often invoked to justify higher prices as rational or even defensible. We evaluate—and mostly counter—potential explanations of why health care prices are higher in the United States: upper-tail income inequality explains higher physician incomes; physicians need to recoup higher training costs; American patients are perceived to have different preferences, while providers face higher medical malpractice and administrative costs; health care purchasing occurs in a fragmented marketplace; and rent seeking rewards providers with favorable prices at the expense of consumers. Of these explanations, rent seeking is compelling partly because it is more consistent than other explanations in explaining higher prices across all sectors of the health care system. We also discuss why administrative costs are gaining recognition as an important factor; however, the understanding of their contribution and the knowledge of solutions is evolving, rather than fully developed. Policy solutions to address rent seeking are challenging, because they threaten provider income. Most solutions, such as price transparency, are often touted as a magic bullet, but these are likely to be effective only in combination with other solutions.

Koonin LM, Patel A. Timely antiviral administration during an influenza pandemic: key components. Am J Public Health. 2018;108(S3):S215-S220. 
Prompt treatment of ill persons with influenza antivirals will be an important part of a future pandemic influenza response. This essay reviews key lessons learned from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and the changing landscape of antiviral drug availability, and identifies and describes the multiple components needed to ensure the timely administration of antiviral drugs during a future pandemic. Fortunately, many of these planning efforts can take place before a pandemic strikes to improve outcomes during a future public health emergency.

Levin-Zamir D, Bertschi I. Media health literacy, eHealth literacy, and the role of the social environment in context. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018;15(8)pii: E1643.
Health literacy describes skills and competencies that enable people to gain access to, understand and apply health information to positively influence their own health and the health of those in their social environments. In an increasingly media saturated and digitized world, these skill sets are necessary for accessing and navigating sources of health information and tools, such as television, the Internet, and mobile apps. The concepts of Media Health Literacy (MHL) and eHealth Literacy (eHL) describe the specific competencies such tasks require. This article introduces the two concepts, and then reviews findings on the associations of MHL and eHL with several contextual variables in the social environment such as socio-demographics, social support, and system complexity, as a structural variable. As eHL and MHL are crucial for empowering people to actively engage in their own health, there is a growing body of literature reporting on the potential and the effectiveness of intervention initiatives to positively influence these competencies. From an ethical standpoint, equity is emphasized, stressing the importance of accessible media environments for all-including those at risk of exclusion from (digital) media sources. Alignment of micro and macro contextual spheres will ultimately facilitate both non-digital and digital media to effectively support and promote public health.

Lumba-Brown A, Yeates KO, Sarmiento K, et al. Centers for Disease Control and prevention guideline on the diagnosis and management of mild traumatic brain injury among children. JAMA Pediatr. 2018 Sep 4:e182853. [Epub ahead of print]
IMPORTANCE: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), or concussion, in children is a rapidly growing public health concern because epidemiologic data indicate a marked increase in the number of emergency department visits for mTBI over the past decade. However, no evidence-based clinical guidelines have been developed to date for diagnosing and managing pediatric mTBI in the United States.
OBJECTIVE: To provide a guideline based on a previous systematic review of the literature to obtain and assess evidence toward developing clinical recommendations for health care professionals related to the diagnosis, prognosis, and management/treatment of pediatric mTBI.
EVIDENCE REVIEW: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Board of Scientific Counselors, a federal advisory committee, established the Pediatric Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Guideline Workgroup. The workgroup drafted recommendations based on the evidence that was obtained and assessed within the systematic review, as well as related evidence, scientific principles, and expert inference. This information includes selected studies published since the evidence review was conducted that were deemed by the workgroup to be relevant to the recommendations. The dates of the initial literature search were January 1, 1990, to November 30, 2012, and the dates of the updated literature search were December 1, 2012, to July 31, 2015.
FINDINGS: The CDC guideline includes 19 sets of recommendations on the diagnosis, prognosis, and management/treatment of pediatric mTBI that were assigned a level of obligation (ie, must, should, or may) based on confidence in the evidence. Recommendations address imaging, symptom scales, cognitive testing, and standardized assessment for diagnosis; history and risk factor assessment, monitoring, and counseling for prognosis; and patient/family education, rest, support, return to school, and symptom management for treatment.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This guideline identifies the best practices for mTBI based on the current evidence; updates should be made as the body of evidence grows. In addition to the development of the guideline, CDC has created user-friendly guideline implementation materials that are concise and actionable. Evaluation of the guideline and implementation materials is crucial in understanding the influence of the recommendations.

Stevens JA, Lee R. The potential to reduce falls and avert costs by clinically managing fall risk. Am J Prev Med. 2018;55(3):290-297. 
INTRODUCTION: Falls often cause severe injuries and are one of the most costly health conditions among older adults. Yet, many falls are preventable. The number of preventable medically treated falls and associated costs averted were estimated by applying evidence-based fall interventions in clinical settings.
METHODS: A review of peer-reviewed literature was conducted in 2017 using literature published between 1994 and 2017, the authors estimated the prevalence of seven fall risk factors and the effectiveness of seven evidence-based fall interventions. Then authors estimated the number of older adults (aged ≥65 years) who would be eligible to receive one of seven fall interventions (e.g., Tai Chi, Otago, medication management, vitamin D supplementation, expedited first eye cataract surgery, single-vision distance lenses for outdoor activities, and home modifications led by an occupational therapist). Using the reported effectiveness of each intervention, the number of medically treated falls that could be prevented and the associated direct medical costs averted were calculated.
RESULTS: Depending on the size of the eligible population, implementing a single intervention could prevent between 9,563 and 45,164 medically treated falls and avert $94-$442 million in direct medical costs annually. The interventions with the potential to help the greatest number of older adults were those that provided home modification delivered by an occupational therapist (38.2 million), and recommended daily vitamin D supplements (16.7 million).
CONCLUSIONS: This report is the first to estimate the number of medically treated falls that could be prevented and the direct medical costs that could be adverted. Preventing falls can benefit older adults substantially by improving their health, independence, and quality of life.

mrl-diamondNew eBooks*

1. Disaster Health Management: A Primer for Students and Practitioners. Edited by Gerard Joseph FitzGerald.
2. Distributed Leadership. Edited by Neha Chatwani.
3. Early Warning for Infectious Disease Outbreak: Theory and Practice. Edited by Weizhong Yang.
4. Evaluating Public and Community Health Programs. By Muriel J. Harris. 
5. Fall Prevention and Protection: Principles, Guidelines, and Practices. Edited by Hongwei Hsiao.
6. Human Emerging and Re-emerging Infections. Edited by Sunit K. Singh.

*For More Information:  Employees may contact the Medical and Research Library at library@dshs.texas.gov, call 512-776-7559, or come by Moreton Building, Room M-652, to borrow a print book, receive password access to a journal, receive other research assistance, or to obtain full-text of the articles mentioned in this month's news. If you are not located on the main campus in Austin, simply let us know what you would like to borrow and we will mail it to you.

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Last updated October 1, 2018