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Medical and Research Library News - September 2016

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News and training opportunities
Cool websites and reports on hot topics*
Interesting journal articles
New Books

September 2016

mrl-diamond(1)News and training opportunities

The Future of Obesity Prevention and Treatment: A Public Workshop from the National Academy of Sciences. Live webcast on Tuesday, September 27, 2016 from 7:30 AM to 3:00 PM (CDT). For details and to register for the webcast, see https://www.eventbrite.com/e/driving-action-and-progress-on-obesity-prevention-and-treatment-registration-26334890366 

Improving Health Outcomes for Seniors in Rural Communities: A webinar on September 19, 2016 1-2 PM (CDT). Learn about a telemedicine program supporting local staff in seven rural, mid-western states. The program supports optimal healing and wellness for older adults by focusing on proactive medical care to avoid unnecessary transfers, hospitalizations, and readmissions. To register, see http://www.jhartfound.org/news-events/events/conversations-with-gia-improving-health-outcomes-for-seniors-in-rural-commu   

Introduction to Policy Analysis in Public Health: The course introduces the learner to the CDC policy process and provides specific instruction on the policy analysis component of the process. Instructional content will result in the learner having a better understanding of what policy analysis is, its use in assessing policy options, and how it can contribute to public health's role in policy. Register through TRAIN at https://www.train.org/DesktopShell.aspx 

Introduction to Policy Evaluation in Public Health: This course provides instruction on using evaluation methods throughout the policy process. This introductory course will help the learner apply the CDC Evaluation Framework to conduct an evaluation of adopted policies that may impact public health. Register through TRAIN at https://www.train.org/DesktopShell.aspx 


Cool websites and reports on hot topics*

Be in the know about 'Pokemon Go': 5 public health perks and pitfalls of catching 'em all, from the American Public Health Association. See https://storify.com/APHA/pokemon-go 

Comprehensive Framework for Addressing the School Nutrition Environment and Services, CDC. This presents a framework for school nutrition professionals, school health professionals, administrators, teachers, and parents. Read it at http://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/nutrition/pdf/school_nutrition_framework_508tagged.pdf 

Current Practices in Worksite Wellness Initiatives, CDC. Six states are working to implement worksite wellness initiatives by using strategies such as programs, policies, environmental supports, or community links to promote the health of their employees. Read about it at:  http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpao/state-local-programs/pdf/current-practices-worksite-wellness.pdf  

Exploring Disaster Risk Reduction through Community Level Approaches to Promote Healthy Outcomes: Proceedings of a Workshop, 2016. Participants discussed the concepts of disaster risk reduction, their application within U.S. communities through novel and contemporary practices, and specific strategies that can be implemented at the local level through cross-sector collaboration. See https://www.nap.edu/catalog/23600/exploring-disaster-risk-reduction-through-community-level-approaches-to-promote-healthy-outcomes 

First Look at the HRSA HIV Workforce Study, a special issue of HIV Specialist, August 2016, is available at http://www.aahivm.org/HIV_Specialist/upload/FINAL%20AUGUST%20ISSUE%208.22.pdf 

Gene Drives on the Horizon: Advancing Science, Navigating Uncertainty, and Aligning Research with Public Values (2016). This book outlines the state of knowledge relative to the science, ethics, public engagement, and risk assessment as it pertains to research directions of gene drive systems and governance of the research process. (Gene drive is the practice of stimulating biased inheritance of particular genes to alter entire populations.) http://www.nap.edu/catalog/23405/gene-drives-on-the-horizon-advancing-science-navigating-uncertainty-and 

Good Dog, Bad Food: Foods for People that Are Bad for Your Dog from the Food and Drug Administration. See http://www.fda.gov/downloads/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/UCM513385.pdf 

High-Risk Pools for Uninsurable Individuals, Issue Brief by the Kaiser Family Foundation, July 2016 at http://files.kff.org/attachment/Issue-Brief-High-Risk-Pools-For-Uninsurable-Individuals 

How Modeling Can Inform Strategies to Improve Population Health: Workshop Summary (2016). Participants worked to identify how modeling could inform population health decision making based on lessons learned from models that have been, or have not been, used successfully, opportunities and barriers to incorporating models into decision making, and data needs and opportunities to leverage existing data and to collect new data for modeling. This report summarizes the presentations and discussions from this workshop. See http://www.nap.edu/catalog/21807/how-modeling-can-inform-strategies-to-improve-population-health-workshop 

Public Health Preparedness Landscape: Findings from the 2015 Preparedness Profile Assessment, results from a NACCHO survey are available at http://www.naccho.org/uploads/downloadable-resources/Slide-Doc-Presentation-2015-Preparedness-Profile-Survey-Results-v2.5-pptx.pdf 


mrl-diamondInteresting journal articles

Adolescence is associated with genomically patterned consolidation of the hubs of the human brain connectome. Whitaker KJ, Vértes PE, Romero-Garcia R, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Jul 25. pii: 201601745. [Epub ahead of print]
How does human brain structure mature during adolescence? We used MRI to measure cortical thickness and intracortical myelination in 297 population volunteers aged 14-24 y old. We found and replicated that association cortical areas were thicker and less myelinated than primary cortical areas at 14 y. However, association cortex had faster rates of shrinkage and myelination over the course of adolescence. Age-related increases in cortical myelination were maximized approximately at the internal layer of projection neurons. Adolescent cortical myelination and shrinkage were coupled and specifically associated with a dorsoventrally patterned gene expression profile enriched for synaptic, oligodendroglial- and schizophrenia-related genes. Topologically efficient and biologically expensive hubs of the brain anatomical network had greater rates of shrinkage/myelination and were associated with overexpression of the same transcriptional profile as cortical consolidation. We conclude that normative human brain maturation involves a genetically patterned process of consolidating anatomical network hubs. We argue that developmental variation of this consolidation process may be relevant both to normal cognitive and behavioral changes and the high incidence of schizophrenia during human brain adolescence.   (For less clinical interpretation of their findings, see https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160114.html )

Assessing the global threat from Zika virus. Lessler J, Chaisson LH, Kucirka LM, et al. Science. 2016 Jul 14. pii: aaf8160. [Epub ahead of print]
First discovered in 1947, Zika virus (ZIKV) infection remained a little known tropical disease until 2015, when its apparent association with a significant increase in the incidence of microcephaly in Brazil raised alarms worldwide. There is limited information on the key factors that determine the extent of the global threat from ZIKV infection and resulting complications. Here, we review what is known about the epidemiology, natural history, and public health impact of ZIKV infection, the empirical basis for this knowledge, and the critical knowledge gaps that need to be filled.

The economic burden of schizophrenia in the United States in 2013. Cloutier M, Aigbogun MS, Guerin A, et al. J Clin Psychiatry. 2016 Jun;77(6):764-71.
Objective: The objective of this study was to estimate the US societal economic burden of schizophrenia and update the 2002 reported costs of $62.7 billion given the disease management and health care structural changes of the last decade. Methods: A prevalence-based approach was used to assess direct health care costs, direct non-health care costs, and indirect costs associated with schizophrenia (ICD-9 codes 295.xx) for 2013, with cost adjustments where necessary. Direct health care costs were estimated using a retrospective matched cohort design using the Truven Health Analytics MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters, Medicare Supplemental, and Medicaid Multistate databases. Direct non-health care costs were estimated for law enforcement, homeless shelters, and research and training. Indirect costs were estimated for productivity loss from unemployment, reduced work productivity among the employed, premature mortality (ie, suicide), and caregiving. Results: The economic burden of schizophrenia was estimated at $155.7 billion ($134.4 billion-$174.3 billion based on sensitivity analyses) for 2013 and included excess direct health care costs of $37.7 billion (24%), direct non-health care costs of $9.3 billion (6%), and indirect costs of $117.3 billion (76%) compared to individuals without schizophrenia. The largest components were excess costs associated with unemployment (38%), productivity loss due to caregiving (34%), and direct health care costs (24%). Conclusions: Schizophrenia is associated with a significant economic burden where, in addition to direct health care costs, indirect and non-health care costs are strong contributors, suggesting that therapies should aim at improving not only symptom control but also cognition and functional performance, which are associated with substantial non-health care and indirect costs.

Eliminating the neglected tropical diseases: translational science and new technologies.
Hotez PJ, Pecoul B, Rijal S, et al. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016 Mar 2;10(3):e0003895. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003895.
Today, the World Health Organization recognizes 17 major parasitic and related infections as the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Despite recent gains in the understanding of the nature and prevalence of NTDs, as well as successes in recent scaled-up preventive chemotherapy strategies and other health interventions, the NTDs continue to rank among the world's greatest global health problems. For virtually all of the NTDs (including those slated for elimination under the auspices of a 2012 London Declaration for NTDs and a 2013 World Health Assembly resolution [WHA 66.12]), additional control mechanisms and tools are needed, including new NTD drugs, vaccines, diagnostics, and vector control agents and strategies. Elimination will not be possible without these new tools. Here we summarize some of the key challenges in translational science to develop and introduce these new technologies in order to ensure success in global NTD elimination efforts.

Examining social, physical, and environmental dimensions of tornado vulnerability in Texas. Siebeneck L. J Emerg Manag. 2016 Mar-Apr;14(2):139-51.
Objective: To develop a vulnerability model that captures the social, physical, and environmental dimensions of tornado vulnerability of Texas counties. Design: Guided by previous research and methodologies proposed in the hazards and emergency management literature, a principle components analysis is used to create a tornado vulnerability index. Data were gathered from open source information available through the US Census Bureau, American Community Surveys, and the Texas Natural Resources Information System. Setting: Texas counties. Results: The results of the model yielded three indices that highlight geographic variability of social vulnerability, built environment vulnerability, and tornado hazard throughout Texas. Further analyses suggest that counties with the highest tornado vulnerability include those with high population densities and high tornado risk. Conclusions: This article demonstrates one method for assessing statewide tornado vulnerability and presents how the results of this type of analysis can be applied by emergency managers towards the reduction of tornado vulnerability in their communities.

Experiences implementing a routine HIV screening program in two federally qualified health centers in the Southern United States. Crumby NS, Arrezola E, Brown EH, et al. Public Health Rep. 2016 Jan-Feb;131 Suppl 1:21-9.
Objective: The southern United States is highly affected by HIV, and community health centers play a key role in addressing the health-care needs of residents of southern cities. In 2012, Southside Medical Care Services ("Southside") in Atlanta, Georgia, and Central Care Community Health Center ("Central Care") in Houston, Texas, began comprehensive programs for routine HIV screening and linkage to HIV care. Methods: We examined patient-level testing outcomes using medical record-derived data. We also compared the total number of HIV tests and HIV-positive tests in the most recent 12 months of the program with the number of HIV tests and HIV-positive tests during the 12 months prior to the program start. Results: Southside saw 52,437 eligible patients from June 2012 through April 2014; 41,720 (80%) were offered an HIV test, 11,092 (27% of those offered a test) were tested, 75 (0.7% of those tested) had a positive result, and 74 (99% of those with a positive result) were linked to HIV care. Compared with the 12 months prior to the start of routine HIV screening implementation, Southside's routine HIV screening program conducted 5,955 more HIV tests (733% increase) and had 31 more patients who tested positive (238% increase). Central Care saw 22,658 eligible patients from July 2012 to April 2014; 10,904 (48%) were offered an HIV test, 9,909 (91% of those offered a test) were tested, 52 (0.5% of those tested) had a positive result, and 41 (79% of those with a positive result) were linked to HIV care. Compared with the 12 months before routine HIV screening was implemented, Central Care's routine HIV screening program conducted 4,559 more HIV tests (618% increase) and had 36 more patients who tested positive (600% increase). Conclusion: Southside and Central Care effectively implemented routine HIV screening programs that dramatically increased their testing volume while also linking the majority of HIV-positive patients to care. Other community health centers should consider similar programs.

Prevalence and characteristics of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years--autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 sites, United States, 2012.
Christensen DL, Baio J, Van Naarden et al. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2016 Apr 1;65(3):1-23. Problem/Condition: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Period Covered: 2012. Interpretation: Overall estimated ASD prevalence was 14.6 per 1,000 children aged 8 years in the ADDM Network sites in 2012. The higher estimated prevalence among sites that reviewed both education and health records suggests the role of special education systems in providing comprehensive evaluations and services to children with developmental disabilities. Disparities by race/ethnicity in estimated ASD prevalence, particularly for Hispanic children, as well as disparities in the age of earliest comprehensive evaluation and presence of a previous ASD diagnosis or classification, suggest that access to treatment and services might be lacking or delayed for some children. Public Health Action: The ADDM Network will continue to monitor the prevalence and characteristics of ASD among children aged 8 years living in selected sites across the United States. Recommendations from the ADDM Network include enhancing strategies to 1) lower the age of first evaluation of ASD by community providers in accordance with the Healthy People 2020 goal that children with ASD are evaluated by age 36 months and begin receiving community-based support and services by age 48 months; 2) reduce disparities by race/ethnicity in identified ASD prevalence, the age of first comprehensive evaluation, and presence of a previous ASD diagnosis or classification; and 3) assess the effect on ASD prevalence of the revised ASD diagnostic criteria published in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition.

Vaccination and 30-day mortality risk in children, adolescents, and young adults. McCarthy NL, Gee J, Sukumaran L, et al. Pediatrics. 2016 Mar;137(3):e20152970. doi: 10.1542/peds.2015-2970. Epub 2016 Feb 1.
Objective: This study evaluates the potential association of vaccination and death in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD). Methods: The study cohort included individuals ages 9 to 26 years with deaths between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011. We implemented a case-centered method to estimate a relative risk (RR) for death in days 0 to 30 after vaccination. Deaths due to external causes (accidents, homicides, and suicides) were excluded from the primary analysis. In a secondary analysis, we included all deaths regardless of cause. A team of physicians reviewed available medical records and coroner's reports to confirm cause of death and assess the causal relationship between death and vaccination. Results: Of the 1100 deaths identified during the study period, 76 (7%) occurred 0 to 30 days after vaccination. The relative risks for deaths after any vaccination and influenza vaccination were significantly lower for deaths due to nonexternal causes (RR 0.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.38-0.83, and RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.24-0.80, respectively) and deaths due to all causes (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.56-0.91, and RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.28-0.65). No other individual vaccines were significantly associated with death. Among deaths reviewed, 1 cause of death was unknown, 25 deaths were due to nonexternal causes, and 34 deaths were due to external causes. The causality assessment found no evidence of a causal association between vaccination and death. Conclusions: Risk of death was not increased during the 30 days after vaccination, and no deaths were found to be causally associated with vaccination.


mrl-diamond(1)New Books

1. America's Bitter Pill: Money, Politics, Backroom Deals, and the Fight to Fix Our Broken Healthcare System
2. Basic Training for Trainers
3. The Boys in the Bunkhouse: Servitude and Salvation in the Heartland
4. Coaching Basics.
5. ISCN 2016
6. Koenig and Schultz's Disaster Medicine: Comprehensive Principles and Practices, 2nd ed.
7. Learn Excel 2013 Essential Skills with the Smart Method
8. Learn Excel 2013 Expert Skills with the Smart Method
9. Nurses Making Policy from Bedside to Boardroom
10. Occupational Safety and Health Policy
11. Population-Based Nursing: Concepts and Competencies for Advanced Practice, 2nd ed.
12. Public Health Quality Improvement Encyclopedia
13. The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies
14. The Success Equation
15. Tableau for Healthcare, 2nd ed.
16. Take Charge of Your Life: How to Get What You Need with Choice-Theory Psychology
17. Training Design and Delivery: A Guide for Every Trainer, Training Manager, and Occasional Trainer
18. Viral Infections of Humans: Epidemiology and Control, 5th ed.


*For More Information:  Employees may contact the Medical and Research Library at library@dshs.state.tx.us, call 512-776-7559, or come by Moreton Building, Room M-652, to borrow a book, receive password access to a journal, receive other research assistance, or obtain full-text of the articles mentioned in this month's news. If you are not located on the main campus in Austin, simply let us know what you would like to borrow and we will mail it to you.

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Last updated September 12, 2016