• Vision: A Healthy Texas

    Mission: To improve health and well-being in Texas
  • Texas 211

DSHS Offers PAM Precautions

News Release
August 31, 2010

In advance of the Labor Day holiday weekend, the Texas Department of State Health Services is reminding swimmers and skiers to take precautions to avoid infection from Naegleria fowleri, an ameba assumed to be present in all rivers, lakes, ponds, tanks and streams.

The ameba can cause primary amebic meningoencephalitis, or PAM, an infection of the brain. Infection is extremely rare but almost always fatal.

Ten cases of PAM have been reported in Texas since 2000, including a child this month from Tarrant County.

DSHS offers these precautions to reduce the already low risk of infection:

  • Never swim or ski in stagnant water.
  • Hold your nose or use nose clips when skiing, jet skiing or jumping into any fresh water.

The ameba thrives in warm, stagnant water but may be present in any body of fresh water. A combination of lower water levels, high temperatures and stagnant or slow-moving water may produce higher concentrations of the ameba.

Infection is believed to occur when water containing the ameba is forced up the nose when diving or jumping into the water or when skiing. Symptoms may include severe headache, high fever, stiff neck, nausea and vomiting.

The ameba does not live in salt water or in swimming pools and hot tubs that are properly cleaned, maintained and treated with chlorine.

DSHS officials said closing lakes or other bodies of water is not a standard public health protection measure against PAM given that the amebas are ubiquitous, naturally occurring microorganisms and infections are extremely rare.

Other dangers associated with lakes and rivers include diving into waters that are too shallow or that may hide rocks and debris. Never leave children unattended around water.


(News Media Contact: Carrie Williams, DSHS Acting Press Officer, 512-458-7119)

DSHS Press Office on Twitter

Last updated December 27, 2013