The Facts About HIV

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is the virus that causes AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). The HIV virus destroys the body’s ability to fight off infection and can eventually lead to AIDS. To date, there is no cure for HIV. If unidentified and untreated, HIV can be fatal.

HIV is spread through blood, semen, vaginal secretions and breast milk.

The most common ways persons may become infected with HIV are:

  • Having sex (anal, vaginal or oral), with someone infected with HIV.
  • Sharing needles or syringes with someone who is infected.
  • A woman with HIV can pass the virus to her baby during pregnancy or birth. A few babies have been infected by breastfeeding from their HIV infected mother.
  • Although all donated blood has been screened for HIV since 1985, some people got the virus by receiving HIV-infected blood products between 1978 and 1985.

You cannot tell if someone has HIV by looking at them. A person infected with HIV may look healthy and feel fine, but they can still pass the virus to others. An HIV test is the only way a person can learn is he or she is infected with HIV.

Who should be tested for HIV?

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the United Stated Preventive Services Task Force, every one between the ages 15 to 65 should be screened at least once.

People who should be screened more frequently include people who:

  • Have had sex without a condom (anal, vaginal or oral) with someone whose HIV status you
  • Do not know, even if that person is a boyfriend, girlfriend or spouse
  • Shared needles, syringes or works
  • Had multiple sex partners, male or female
  • Have been diagnosed with or treated for any sexually transmitted infection (STI), hepatitis, or tuberculosis
  • Exchange sex for money, drugs or other goods
  • Received blood products between 1978 and 1985

Or, if a person had sex, even once, with anyone who has done any of these things.


TestTexas HIV Coalition logo

Approximately 18,000 Texans are unaware of their HIV infection.

Knowledge is power. Learning one’s positive serostatus is the first step for newly diagnosed HIV patients to get linked to care and treated early in the disease process with the potential to have a nearly normal lifespan.
- C. Everett Koop, Former Surgeon General of the United States

Last updated July 7, 2020