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Medical and Research Library News - January 2019

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News and training opportunities
Cool websites and reports on hot topics*
Interesting journal articles*

Happy New Year!

January 2019

mrl-diamondNews and training opportunities

Note: The following webinars and online classes are not affiliated with DSHS or the DSHS Library. They are presented here as opportunities to learn more information of interest to public health personnel.

January 8, 2019; 3 – 4:30 p.m. Demystifying Medicine 2019 - Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases: A Perpetual Challenge/The Next Influenza Pandemic. The Demystifying Medicine Lecture Series is designed to help bridge the gap between advances in biology and their applications to major human diseases. The lectures include presentations of patients, pathology, diagnosis, and therapy in the context of major diseases and current research. Sponsored by the Center for Information Technology. https://videocast.nih.gov/summary.asp?live=29097&bhcp=1

January 9, 2019; 11 – 12:00 p.m. Obesity Disparities and the Use of Activity Tracker Technology to Facilitate Healthy Behaviors. Health disparities exist in the prevalence of obesity and non-communicable diseases (e.g. diabetes) for Veterans. Encouraging a healthy weight and promoting healthy behaviors associated with a healthy weight is challenging. The January 2019 Focus on Health Equity and Action Cyber-seminar focuses on current obesity disparities in Veteran populations and will highlight a partnership that connects Veterans to activity and fitness trackers to promote engagement in an active lifestyle. https://register.gotowebinar.com/register/5225786747730694401

January 14, 2019; 9:30 – 11:00 a.m. From Africa to the United States: Addressing Access to Early Detection and Treatment of Cervical and Breast Cancers. Renowned gynecologic oncologist Dr. Groesbeck Parham will present strategies for improving access to care for cervical and breast cancer early detection and treatment. He will discuss how these strategies, with the use of technology and task-shifting, may be applied to gynecological practices in the U.S. Sponsored by the Health Resources & Services Administration (HRSA).  https://services.choruscall.com/links/hrsa190114.html

January 15, 2019; 11 – 12:00 p.m. Building a Foundation for Healthy Active Living: A Focus on the First 5 Years. Dr. Sandra G. Hassink, previous president of the American Academy of Pediatrics and internationally recognized expert in child obesity prevention, will discuss key anticipatory guidance and counseling techniques and desired actions (for the health care provider and parent). She will also highlight tools and resources to support implementation. Sponsored by the Health Resources & Services Administration (HRSA). https://hrsa.connectsolutions.com/foundation_healthy_living/

January 17, 2019; 12:30 - 2:00 p.m. Addressing Stigma Against Patients with Substance Use Disorders: Individual and Institutional Strategies. This webcast will discuss stigma against people with substance use disorders, including how to recognize various types of bias and how to then address them at both the individual and organizational level. The presentation will include tips and tools designed to help all health center staff identify their own internal biases and biased behaviors and work to positively change their perceptions and actions in order to effectively support patients with substance use disorders. Sponsored by Community Health Association of Mountain/Plains States (CHAMPS). https://register.gotowebinar.com/register/7378852615978086915

January 23, 2019; 1 - 2:00 p.m. From Problem to Prevention: Evidence-Based Public Health. Curious about evidence-based public health (EBPH) but not sure where to start? This webinar will explain the basics of evidence-based public health (EBPH) and highlight essentials of the EBPH process such as identifying the problem, forming a question, searching the literature, and evaluating the intervention. The purpose of this webinar is to provide an introduction to the world of evidence based public health and to give those already familiar with EBPH useful information that can be applied in their practices. Presented bythe National Network of Libraries of Medicine. https://nnlm.gov/class/EBPH19

January 28, 2019; 1 – 2:00 p.m. Leveraging Technology to Measure Capacity for Using Multi-Sector Data to Improve Community Health. Clare Tanner, PhD, Co-Director of Data Across Sectors for Health (DASH) at the Michigan Public Health Institute and lead partner in the All In: Data for Community Health learning network, will provide an overview of a capacity assessment tool that tracks progress in the field of multi-sector data sharing. She will share the initial results of data collection from 32 communities, describe how understanding national-level trends can help guide funding and policy decisions that advance local initiatives, and explain how local collaborations can use the tool to inform their planning and self-monitoring processes. Simultaneously, during the event, she will feature the All In online community, powered by HealthDoers, to show how technology is advancing DASH’s collaboration efforts with key stakeholders and the communities they serve. https://nrhi.zoom.us/webinar/register/a88038e7269308997c24e00bf0acd2b8

January 29, 2019; 2 – 3:00 p.m. Policies & Programs to Help Build a Culture of Health. Building Culture of Health involves comprehensive strategies to address the many things that contribute health, opportunity, and equity in communities. In Vicksburg, MS and Buncombe County, NC - two communities that have been recognized with a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Culture of Health Prize - leaders and residents have implemented a broad range of policies and programs to create the conditions for everyone to reach their best possible health. Sponsored by Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute. http://www.countyhealthrankings.org/learn-from-others/webinars/policies-programs-to-help-build-a-culture-of-health

January 29, 2019; 12 - 1:00 p.m. Drug Courts: A Bridge to Recovery. Join Judge Timothy Bibaud and Drug Court Graduate “Dakota” for their informative, and personal stories about how drug courts address the underlying causes of criminal behavior, substance use disorder and/or mental illness. Judge Bibaud presides over the Dudley District Drug Court in Dudley, Massachusetts. Dakota earned his life back thanks to this innovative treatment strategy and Judge Bibaud’s team of caring and empathetic professionals at the Dudley District Drug Court. Presented by the National Network of Libraries of Medicine. https://nnlm.gov/class/drug-courts-bridge-recovery/9131

mrl-diamondCool websites and reports on hot topics*

Addressing Social Determinants of Health via Medicaid Managed Care Contracts and Section 1115 Demonstrations – This report, developed by the Center for Health Care Strategies for the Association for Community Affiliated Plans (ACAP), examines 40 Medicaid managed care contracts and 25 approved § 1115 demonstrations across the country to identify common themes in state approaches to incentivizing and requiring SDOH-related activities. https://www.chcs.org/resource/addressing-social-determinants-of-health-via-medicaid-managed-care-contracts-and-section-1115-demonstrations/

Drug and Opioid-Involved Overdose Deaths — United States, 2013–2017  – In 2017, among 70,237 drug overdose deaths, 47,600 (67.8%) involved opioids, with increases across age groups, racial/ethnic groups, county urbanization levels, and in multiple states. From 2013 to 2017, synthetic opioids contributed to increases in drug overdose death rates in several states. From 2016 to 2017, synthetic opioid-involved overdose death rates increased 45.2%. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/wr/mm675152e1.htm?s_cid=mm675152e1_w

Global Tuberculosis Report 2018 – WHO has published a global TB report every year since 1997. The main aim of the report is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date assessment of the TB epidemic, and of progress in prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the disease at global, regional and country levels. https://www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/en/
Leading Public Health Practice Though Health Informatics and Technology — This guidebook from ASTHO provides information to help state public health leaders develop health informatics and technology systems to improve population health. http://astho.informz.net/z/cjUucD9taT0yNDk5ODUwJnA9MSZ1PTM4NTU0NDIwMyZsaT0xNjc3MDA1OQ/index.html

Red Flags and Warning Signs Ignored: Opioid Distribution and Enforcement Concerns in West Virginia (December 2018)   – This report from the U.S. House of Representatives presents case studies of opioid distribution to southwestern West Virginia pharmacies over the last decade. The case studies—taken altogether with the sheer number of opioids sent to these small towns—raise sufficient concerns as to whether these drug distribution companies fulfilled their legal obligations to prevent drug diversion. https://energycommerce.house.gov/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Opioid-Distribution-Report-FinalREV.pdf

State and Local Public Health Partnerships to Address Dementia, The 2018- 2023 Road Map  – This report charts a course for state and local public health agencies and their partners. The Road Map prepares all communities to act quickly and strategically by stimulating changes in policies, systems, and environments. Alignment of HBI Road Map actions with Essential Services of Public Health ensures that initiatives to address Alzheimer’s can be incorporated easily and efficiently into existing public health initiatives. From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). https://www.cdc.gov/aging/healthybrain/roadmap.htm

ToxTown – This website from NIH provides consumer-level information on everyday locations and situations where you might be exposed to toxic chemicals and will help you better understand risks of exposure, potential health effects, and how to protect yourself. https://toxtown.nlm.nih.gov/

mrl-diamondInteresting journal articles*

Allen M. Chronicling the risk and risk communication by governmental officials during the Zika threat. Risk Anal. 2018; 38(12):2507-2513.
The unique circumstances surrounding Zika, including the fact that it is both mosquito-borne and sexually transmissible, brought to the fore concerns about optimal ways to communicate risk in an environment characterized by rapidly evolving knowledge. The difficulty in doing so is magnified by the fact that science-based health messages from governmental agencies must be developed in an evidence-based, audience-participative, and collaborative manner. A recent reminder in JAMA asserted the importance of preparing now for future threats. Understanding how the knowledge and messaging about Zika changed across time should help public health officials prepare for such challenges.

Cunningham R, Walton M, Carter P. The major causes of death in children and adolescents in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2018; 379(25):2468-2475. 
In 2016, children and adolescents (1 to 19 years of age) represented a quarter of the total estimated U.S. population; reflecting relatively good health, they accounted for less than 2% of all U.S. deaths. By 2016, death among children and adolescents had become a rare event. Declines in deaths from infectious disease or cancer, which had resulted from early diagnosis, vaccinations, antibiotics, and medical and surgical treatment, had given way to increases in deaths from injury related causes, including motor vehicle crashes, firearm injuries, and the emerging problem of opioid overdoses. Although injury deaths have traditionally been viewed as “accidents,” injury prevention science that evolved during the latter half of the 20th century increasingly shows that such deaths are preventable with evidence-based approaches.

Ford-Gilboe M, Wathen C, Varcoe C, et al. How equity-oriented health care affects health: Key mechanisms and implications for primary health care practice and policy. Milbank Q. 2018; 96(4):635-671. 
CONTEXT: Significant attention has been directed toward addressing health inequities at the population health and systems levels, yet little progress has 
been made in identifying approaches to reduce health inequities through clinical care, particularly in a primary health care context. Although the provision of equity-oriented health care (EOHC) is widely assumed to lead to improvements in patients' health outcomes, little empirical evidence supports this claim. To remedy this, we tested whether more EOHC predicts more positive patient health outcomes and identified selected mediators of this relationship.
METHODS: Our analysis uses longitudinal data from 395 patients recruited from 4 primary health care clinics serving people living in marginalizing conditions. 
The participants completed 4 structured interviews composed of self-report measures and survey questions over a 2-year period. Using path analysis techniques, we tested a hypothesized model of the process through which patients' perceptions of EOHC led to improvements in self-reported health outcomes (quality of life, chronic pain disability, and posttraumatic stress [PTSD] and depressive symptoms), including particular covariates of health outcomes (age, gender, financial strain, experiences of discrimination).
FINDINGS: Over a 24-month period, higher levels of EOHC predicted greater patient comfort and confidence in the health care patients received, leading to increased confidence to prevent and manage their health problems, which, in turn, improved health outcomes (depressive symptoms, PTSD symptoms, chronic pain, and quality of life). In addition, financial strain and experiences of discrimination had significant negative effects on all health outcomes.
CONCLUSIONS: This study is among the first to demonstrate empirically that providing more EOHC predicts better patient health outcomes over time. At a policy level, this research supports investments in equity-focused organizational and provider-level processes in primary health care as a means of improving patients' health, particularly for those living in marginalizing conditions. Whether these results are robust in different patient groups and across a broader range of health care contexts requires further study.

Stohl H, Chen A. Oral health coverage options for pregnant adults and adolescents. Matern Child Health J. 2018; 22(1):24-31. 
Oral health care is a necessary and critical component of health care for pregnant women, but its importance is often overlooked by clinicians. Pregnant women who are low-income also find it particularly difficult to access care. This analytic essay summarizes oral health coverage for pregnant women under various types of health insurance coverage, including Medicaid, the Children's Health Insurance Program, and coverage options available under the Affordable Care Act. We hope this information will help clinicians better understand the importance of oral health care during pregnancy and the range of coverage options that may be available to their patients.

Walling E, Dodd S, Bobenhouse N, Reis E, Sterkel R, Garbutt J. Implementation of strategies to improve human papillomavirus vaccine coverage: A provider survey. Am J Prev Med. 2019; 56(1):74-83. 
INTRODUCTION: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage in the U.S. is persistently suboptimal, despite research describing barriers to vaccination and strategies to increase vaccination coverage. The objective was to assess providers' approach to the HPV vaccine and their implementation of strategies to increase HPV vaccination coverage. The hypothesis was that adoption of improvement measures to address underuse of the HPV vaccine has not occurred.
METHODS: Community pediatric providers from two Midwestern practice-based research networks completed self-administered electronic surveys. Data were collected over 6 months in 2015 and organized and analyzed in 2016.
RESULTS: There were 100 providers that participated. Despite agreement with national recommendations, some providers delayed their recommendation until the adolescent was older and many reported missed vaccination opportunities. Many providers experienced parental concerns including safety of the HPV vaccine, belief their child was not at risk of HPV infection, and their child's resistance to receiving multiple shots. Providers identified the following as barriers to adherence to Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices guidelines: bad publicity of the HPV vaccine, information about the HPV vaccine on the web, and a lack of a follow-up system for those who delayed HPV vaccine initiation. Approximately half of the participants had implemented strategies to address these barriers beyond offering immunization-only appointments.
CONCLUSIONS: Participants were aware of barriers to HPV vaccine use, but many had not adopted a systematic approach to increase vaccine coverage. A better understanding of the challenges facing providers to adopting improvement measures and a strategy to address barriers to implementation are needed to improve HPV coverage.

Xiao Q, Berrigan D, Powell-Wiley T, Matthews C. Ten-year change in neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and rates of total, cardiovascular disease, and cancer mortality in older US adults. Am J Epidemiol. 2018; 187(12):2642-2650. 
Low neighborhood socioeconomic status has been linked to adverse health outcomes. However, it is unclear whether changing the neighborhood may influence health. We examined 10-year change in neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation in relation to mortality rate among 288,555 participants aged 51-70 years who enrolled in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study in 1995-1996 (baseline) and did not move during the study. Changes in neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation between 1990 and 2000 were measured by US Census data at the census tract level. All-cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer deaths were ascertained through annual linkage to the Social Security Administration Death Master File between 2000 and 2011. Overall, our results suggested that improvement in neighborhood socioeconomic status was associated with a lower mortality rate, while deterioration was associated with a higher mortality rate. More specially, a 30-percentile-point reduction in neighborhood deprivation among more deprived neighborhoods was associated with 11% and 19% reductions in the total mortality rate among men and women, respectively. On the other hand, a 30-point increase in neighborhood deprivation in less deprived neighborhoods was associated with an 11% increase in the mortality rate among men. Our findings support a longitudinal association between changing neighborhood conditions and mortality.

Zang E, Zheng H, Yang Y, Land K. Recent trends in US mortality in early and middle adulthood: Racial/ethnic disparities in inter-cohort patterns. Int J Epidemiol. 2018 Dec 1. [Epub ahead of print]
BACKGROUND: A striking increase in the all-cause mortality of US middle-aged non-Hispanic Whites in the past two decades has been documented by previous studies. The inter-cohort patterns in US mortality, as well as their racial/ethnic disparities, are still unclear.
METHODS: Using official mortality data, we study US annual mortality rates for ages 25-54 from 1990 to 2016 by gender and race/ethnicity. We conduct an age-period-cohort analysis to disentangle the period and cohort forces driving the absolute changes in mortality across cohorts. Nine leading causes of death are also explored to explain the inter-cohort mortality patterns and their racial/ethnic disparities.
RESULTS: We find cohort-specific elevated mortality trends for gender- and race/ethnicity-specific populations. For non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics, Baby Boomers have increased mortality trends compared with other cohorts. For non-Hispanic White females, it is late-Gen Xers and early-Gen Yers for whom the mortality trends are higher than other cohorts. For non-Hispanic White males, the elevated mortality pattern is found for Baby Boomers, late-Gen Xers, and early-Gen Yers. The mortality pattern among Baby Boomers is at least partially driven by mortality related to drug poisoning, suicide, external causes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and HIV/AIDS for all race and gender groups affected. The elevated mortality patterns among late-Gen Xers and early-Gen Yers are at least partially driven by mortality related to drug poisonings and alcohol-related diseases for non-Hispanic Whites. Differential patterns of drug poisoning-related mortality play an important role in the racial/ethnic disparities in these mortality patterns.
CONCLUSIONS: We find substantial racial/ethnic disparities in inter-cohort mortality patterns. Our findings also point to the unique challenges faced by younger generations.

*For More Information:  Employees may contact the Medical and Research Library at library@dshs.texas.gov, call 512-776-7559, or come by Moreton Building, Room M-652, to borrow a print book, receive password access to a journal, receive other research assistance, or to obtain full-text of the articles mentioned in this month's news. If you are not located on the main campus in Austin, simply let us know what you would like to borrow and we will mail it to you.

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Last updated March 5, 2019