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Medical and Research Library News - July 2019

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Training opportunities
Websites and reports on trending topics*
Journal articles of note*
New e-books at the MRL*

July 2019

mrl-diamondTraining opportunities

Note: The following webinars and online classes are not affiliated with DSHS or the DSHS Library. They are presented here as opportunities to learn more information of interest to public health personnel. All times listed are in Central Daylight Time.

July 8, 2019; 2–3 p.m. Evidence Based Suicide Assessment: Guidance for Clinicians and Policy Makers. Results from a large study of U.S. service members at risk of suicide will be presented to highlight how evidence-based suicide-specific assessment tools can be incorporated into clinical practice. Based on evidence of reliability, validity, ease of administration and interpretation, recommendations will be made for which combination of measures is best suited for use in mental health and other settings where routine care is provided for Veterans at risk of suicide. Presented by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. https://register.gotowebinar.com/register/8872815138181543169

July 16, 2019; 2–3 p.m. Vaccines & Vaccine Hesitancy. Despite overwhelming evidence to the life-saving properties of vaccines, there has been an increase 
in vaccine hesitancy in many parts of the world. This has resulted in a deadly resurgence of preventable infectious diseases that is claiming an increasing number of children’s lives. Join this webinar to learn about this challenge and what we can do to enable children to access the vaccines they need to protect them from an array of preventable and potentially lethal diseases. Presented 
by The Consortium of Universities for Global Health (CUGH). https://www.cugh.org/events/vaccines-vaccine-hesitancy

July 17, 2019; 11 a.m.–12 p.m. Label Me This, Label Me That... The Role of Stigma in Substance Use Disorders and What Can Be Done About It. Sponsored by the Indiana Rural Health Association, this presentation will cover stigma and its impact on substance use disorders. Particular attention will be paid to the opioid epidemic but substance use in general will be the main topic of discussion. Concepts, theory, and misconceptions will be a primary focus followed by specific issues and impact of stigma on substance use disorders and their treatment. Solutions to combatting and reducing stigma at the individual, community, and societal levels will conclude the presentation. https://www.indianaruralhealth.org/lunch-and-learn-label-me-this-label-me-that

July 18, 2019; 11 a.m.–12 p.m. Who's Leading the Leading Health Indicators? Webinar: Mental Health. This Healthy People 2020 webinar will highlight the Zero Suicide initiative and its impact in state and federal sectors. You’ll also learn how the Henry Ford Health System in Detroit, MI, pioneered the precursor to the Zero Suicide initiative — Perfect Depression Care — to prevent suicide among their patients. https://healthypeople.webex.com/mw3300/mywebex/default.domain_url=https%3A%2F%2Fhealthypeople.webex.com

Jul 18, 2019; 12–1 p.m. Communicating Data for Maximum Impact. Join the Center for Disease Control’s Climate and Health Program for a webinar on Communicating Data for Maximum Impact. Experts from behavior change agency Marketing for Change will show how health officials can gather and present data points to tell a more powerful story in press releases and policy briefs. https://zoom.us/webinar/register/WN_qe8MZcjrT-6Jf4_yI17ePg

July 24, 2019; 12–1 p.m. Social Media Monitoring in Public Health Emergencies. This webinar from the National Association of County & City health Officials (NACCHO) will help participants learn how to use social media to monitor and respond to the spread of (mis)information during public health emergencies. Presenters will describe the importance of being aware of public sentiment during a public health emergency; identify how to use social media bidirectionally to both provide updates and collect public feedback; and share scalable approaches for managing social media monitoring regardless of organizational budget. https://naccho.zoom.us/webinar/register/WN_uElJIHBxRMqozc1gRbKzGw

July 30, 2019; 1–2 p.m. Clinical and Public Health Partnerships for Antibiotic Stewardship. This webinar will showcase a partnership between Los Angeles County + USC Medical Center (LAC+USC) and Los Angeles County Department of Public Health. Speakers will discuss how the partnership was established and maintained, how it has improved stewardship efforts, challenges and lessons learned, and recommendations for other local health departments and essential hospitals interested in pursuing a similar partnership. Presented by National Association of County & City health Officials (NACCHO). https://events-na10.adobeconnect.com/content/connect/c1/1053915029/en/events/event/shared/1191938649/event_registration.html?connect-session=na10breeztf3m78qbg4vs5gfq&sco-id=1366412225&_charset_=utf-8

mrl-diamondWebsites and reports on trending topics*

2019 KIDS COUNT Data Book - The 30th edition of the Annie E. Casey Foundation’s KIDS COUNT® Data Book begins by exploring how America’s child population — and the American childhood experience — has changed since 1990. And there’s some good news to share: Of the 16 areas of child well-being tracked across four domains — health, education, family and community and economic well-being — 11 have improved since the Foundation published its first Data Book 30 editions ago. https://www.aecf.org/resources/2019-kids-count-data-book/?utm_campaign=phpartners&utm_medium=email&utm_source=govdelivery

2019 Scorecard on State Health System Performance - The Commonwealth Fund’s 2019 Scorecard on State Health System Performance reveals that most states are losing ground on key measures related to life expectancy as premature deaths from suicide, alcohol, and drug overdose continue to increase. https://scorecard.commonwealthfund.org/files/Radley_State_Scorecard_2019.pdf

Alcohol Use by Youth - This policy statement provides the position of the American Academy of Pediatrics on the issue of alcohol and is supported by an accompanying technical report. https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2019/06/20/peds.2019-1356

Exploring Lessons Learned from a Century of Outbreaks: Readiness for 2030: Proceedings of a Workshop (2019) - In November 2018, an ad hoc planning committee at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine planned two sister workshops held in Washington, DC to examine the lessons from influenza pandemics and other major outbreaks, understand the extent to which the lessons have been learned, and discuss how they could be applied further to ensure that countries are sufficiently ready for future pandemics. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from both workshops. https://www.nap.edu/catalog/25391/exploring-lessons-learned-from-a-century-of-outbreaks-readiness-for

HIV/AIDS in the U.S. Deep South: Trends from 2008-2016 - This report from Duke University updates a previous report from the Southern HIV/AIDS Strategy Initiative (SASI) that documented HIV/STI epidemiology from 2008-2013 by examining additional years of epidemiologic data (2014-2016). This report also describes federal funding for HIV prevention and care and utilization of 
Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) in the Deep South and other U.S. regions. https://southernaids.files.wordpress.com/2019/06/sasi-report-hiv-aids-in-the-u.s.-deep-south-trends-from-2008-2016-final.pdf

Public Health Image Library (PHIL) - Much of the information critical to the communication of public health messages is pictorial rather than text-based. Created by a Working Group at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the PHIL offers an organized, universal electronic gateway to CDC's pictures. https://phil.cdc.gov/phil/home.asp

Supervised Injection Sites Are Coming to the United States. Here’s What You Should Know - The University of Southern California's online FNP program created this guide to answer common questions about supervised injection sites. This educational resource furthers the conversation about these sites and the role they play in reducing opioid overdoses. https://nursing.usc.edu/blog/supervised-injection-sites/

Trends in Meeting Physical Activity Guidelines Among Urban and Rural Dwelling Adults — United States, 2008–2017 - Since 2008, the prevalence of meeting physical activity guidelines increased from 19.4% to 25.3% among urban residents and from 13.3% to 19.6% among rural residents. Among urban residents, all subgroups reported increases, whereas among rural residents, 
no increases were reported among Hispanics and adults living in the South. 
From Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR). https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/wr/mm6823a1.htm?s_cid=mm6823a1_e&deliveryName=USCDC_921-DM1993

mrl-diamondJournal articles of note*

Benoit SR, Hora I, Albright AL, Gregg EW. New directions in incidence and prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in the USA. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2019 May 28;7(1):e000657. doi: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2019-000657. 
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether diabetes prevalence and incidence has remained flat or changed direction during the past 5 years.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We calculated annual prevalence and incidence of diagnosed diabetes (type 1 and type 2 combined) for civilian, non-institutionalized adults aged 18-79 years using annual, nationally representative cross-sectional survey data from the National Health Interview Survey from 1980 to 2017. Trends in rates by age group, sex, race/ethnicity, and education were calculated using annual percentage change (APC).
RESULTS: Overall, the prevalence of age-adjusted, diagnosed diabetes did not change significantly from 1980 to 1990, but increased significantly (APC 4.4%) from 1990 to 2009 to a peak of 8.2 per 100 adults (95% CI 7.8 to 8.6), and then plateaued through 2017. The incidence of age-adjusted, diagnosed diabetes did not change significantly from 1980 to 1990, but increased significantly (APC 4.8%) from 1990 to 2007 to 7.8 per 1000 adults (95% CI 6.7 to 9.0), and then decreased significantly (APC -3.1%) to 6.0 (95% CI 4.9 to 7.3) in 2017. The decrease in incidence appears to be driven by non-Hispanic whites with an APC 
of -5.1% (p=0.002) after 2008.
CONCLUSIONS: After an almost 20-year increase in the national prevalence and incidence of diagnosed diabetes, an 8-year period of stable prevalence and a decrease in incidence has occurred. Causes of the plateauing and decrease are unclear but the overall burden of diabetes remains high and deserves continued monitoring and intervention.

Hartholt KA, Lee R, Burns ER, van Beeck EF. Mortality from falls among US adults aged 75 years or older, 2000-2016. JAMA. 2019 Jun 4;321(21):2131-2133. doi: 10.1001/jama.2019.4185.
In the United States, an estimated 28.7% of adults aged 65 years or older fell in 2014.1 Falls result in increased morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Risk factors for falls include age, medication use, poor balance, and chronic conditions (ie, depression, diabetes). Fall prevention strategies are typically recommended for adults older than 65 years. In several European countries, an increase in mortality from falls has been observed since 2000, particularly among adults older than 75 years. This age group has the highest fall risk and potential for cost-effective interventions. We report trends in mortality from falls for the US population aged 75 years or older from 2000 to 2016.

Linnan LA, Cluff L, Lang JE, Penne M, Leff MS. Results of the Workplace Health in America Survey. Am J Health Promot. 2019 Jun;33(5):652-665. doi: 10.1177/0890117119842047
PURPOSE: To provide a nationally representative snapshot of workplace health promotion (WHP) and protection practices among United States worksites.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional, self-report Workplace Health in America (WHA) Survey between November 2016 and September 2017.
PARTICIPANTS: Random sample of US worksites with ≥10 employees, stratified by region, size, and North American Industrial Classification System sector.
MEASURES: Workplace health promotion programs, program administration, evidence-based strategies, health screenings, disease management, incentives, work-life policies, implementation barriers, and occupational safety and health (OSH).
ANALYSIS: Descriptive statistics, t tests, and logistic regression.
RESULTS: Among eligible worksites, 10.1% (n = 3109) responded, 2,843 retained in final sample, and 46.1% offered some type of WHP program. The proportion of comparable worksites with comprehensive programs (as defined in Healthy People 2010) rose from 6.9% in 2004 to 17.1% in 2017 (P < .001). Occupational safety and health programs were more prevalent than WHP programs, and 83.5% of all worksites had an individual responsible for employee safety, while only 72.2% of those with a WHP program had an individual responsible for it. Smaller worksites were less likely than larger to offer most programs.
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of WHP programs has increased but remains low across most health programs; few worksites have comprehensive programs. Smaller worksites have persistent deficits and require targeted approaches; integrated OSH and WHP efforts may help. Ongoing monitoring using the WHA Survey benchmarks OSH and WHP in US worksites, updates estimates from previous surveys, and identifies gaps in research and practice.

McCullough JM1, Singh SR, Leider JP. The Importance of governmental and nongovernmental investments in public health and social services for improving community health outcomes. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2019 Jul/Aug;25(4):348-356. doi: 10.1097/PHH.0000000000000856.
OBJECTIVE: To explore whether health outcomes are influenced by both governmental social services spending and hospital provision of community health services.
DESIGN: We combined hospital provision of community health services data from the American Hospital Association with local governmental spending data from the US Census Bureau. Longitudinal models regressed community health outcomes for 2012-2016 on local government spending on health, social services, and education from 5 years previously, controlling for sociodemographic and hospital marketplace characteristics, spatial autocorrelation, and state-level random effects. For counties with hospitals, models also included county-level data on hospitals' provision of community health services.
SETTING: All analyses were performed at the county level for US counties between 2012 and 2016.
PARTICIPANTS: Complete spending, hospital, and health outcomes data were available for a total of 2,379 counties.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We examined relationships between governmental spending, hospital service provision, and 5 population health outcome measures: years of potential life lost prior to age 75 years per 100,000 population, percentage of population in fair or poor health, percentage of adults who are physically inactive, deaths due to injury per 100,000 population, and percentage of births that are of low birth weight.
RESULTS: Governmental investments in health, social services, and education positively impacted key health outcomes, but mainly in counties with 1 or more hospitals present. Hospitals' provision of community health services also had a significant positive impact on health outcomes.
CONCLUSIONS: Hospital provision of community health services and increases in local governmental health and social services spending were both associated with improved health. Collaboration between local governments and hospitals may help ensure that public and private community health resources synergistically contribute to the public's health. Local policy makers should consider service provision by the private sector to leverage the public investments in health and social services.

Schnall AH, Hanchey A, Nakata N, et al. Disaster-related shelter surveillance during the Hurricane Harvey response - Texas 2017. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2019 Jun 21:1-7. doi: 10.1017/dmp.2019.25. [Epub ahead of print]
OBJECTIVES: Hurricane Harvey left a path of destruction in its wake, resulting in over 100 deaths and damaging critical infrastructure. During a disaster, public health surveillance is necessary to track emerging illnesses and injuries, identify at-risk populations, and assess the effectiveness of response efforts. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and American Red Cross collaborate on shelter surveillance to monitor the health of the sheltered population and help guide response efforts.
METHODS: We analyzed data collected from 24 Red Cross shelters between August 25, 2017, and September 14, 2017. We described the aggregate morbidity data collected during Harvey compared with previous hurricanes (Gustav, Ike, and Sandy).
RESULTS: Over one-third (38%) of reasons for visit were for health care maintenance; 33% for acute illnesses, which includes respiratory conditions, gastrointestinal symptoms, and pain; 19% for exacerbation of chronic disease; 7% for mental health; and 4% for injury. The Red Cross treated 41% of clients within the shelters; however, reporting of disposition was often missed. These results are comparable to previous hurricanes.
CONCLUSION: The capacity of Red Cross shelter staff to address the acute health needs of shelter residents is a critical resource for local public health agencies overwhelmed by the disaster. However, there remains room for improvement because reporting remained inconsistent.

Shrestha S, Cherng S, Hill AN, et al. Impact and effectiveness of state-level tuberculosis interventions in California, Florida, New York and Texas: a model-based analysis. Am J Epidemiol. 2019 Jun 28. pii: kwz147. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwz147. [Epub ahead of print]
The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) disease in the United States has stabilized, and additional interventions are needed to make progress toward TB elimination. But the impact of such interventions depends on local demography and heterogeneity in populations at risk. Using state-level individual-based TB transmission models, calibrated to California, Florida, New York, and Texas, we modeled two TB interventions: (i) Increased targeted testing and treatment (TTT) of high-risk populations, including people who are non-US-born, diabetic, HIV-positive, homeless, or incarcerated; and (ii) Enhanced TB contact investigation (ECI), including higher completion of preventive therapy. For each intervention, we projected reductions in active TB incidence over 10 years (2016-2026) and numbers needed to screen and treat to avert one case. TTT delivered to half of the non-US-born adult population could lower TB incidence by 19.8%-26.7% over ten years. TTT delivered to smaller populations with higher TB risk (e.g., HIV-positive, homeless) and ECI were generally more efficient, but had less overall impact on incidence. TTT targeted to smaller, highest-risk populations, and ECI can be highly efficient; however, major reductions in incidence will only be achieved by also targeting larger, moderate-risk populations. Ultimately, to eliminate TB in the US, a combination of these approaches is necessary.

mrl-diamondNew E-books at the MRL*

1. Cody's data cleaning techniques using SAS by Ronald P. Cody.
2. Dr. Arthur Spohn : surgeon, inventor, and Texas medical pioneer by Jane Clements Monday.
3. Organizational culture and leadership by Edgar H. Schein.
4. Positive leadership : strategies for extraordinary performance by Kim Cameron.
5. Public health disasters: a global ethical framework by Michael Olusegun Afolabi.
6. Zika virus and diseases : from molecular biology to epidemiology by Suzane Ramos da Silva.

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Last updated September 5, 2019