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Medical and Research Library News - July 2020

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Training opportunities
Websites and reports on trending topics*
Journal articles of note*
New e-books at the MRL

July 2020

Training opportunities

Note: The following webinars and online classes are not affiliated with DSHS or the DSHS Library. They are presented here as opportunities to learn more information of interest to public health personnel. All times listed are in Central Daylight Time.

July 8, 2020; 12-1 p.m. COVID-19: Vaccines, testing, and the science behind the cure. This webinar from the American Museum of Natural History will explore the latest research on testing, treatments, and vaccine development and look at how experts are leveraging tools from evolutionary biology, genetics, and genomics to address the pandemic. https://www.amnh.org/calendar/covid-19-vaccines-testing-treatment

July 9, 2020 11-12 p.m. Social determinants of health and COVID-19. According to Healthy People 2020, Social Determinants of Health (SDOH) refer to “the conditions in the places where people live, learn, work, and play that affect health risks and outcomes.” The COVID-19 pandemic has created challenges for many relating to housing, food, employment, etc. This presentation will discuss the importance of assessing for SDOH, keeping an up-to-date list of available local referral resources to help address SDOH, and the importance of community resources for high-risk vulnerable populations. Sponsored by The Indian Health Service. https://ihscqpub.cosocloud.com/content/connect/c1/7/en/events/event/private/1302046856/1975557930/event_landing.html?sco-id=1976282900&_charset_=utf-8

July 9, 2020 12-1 p.m. Successfully engaging older adults and adults with disabilities via technology. Join the Administration for Community Living and other national stakeholders for a webinar highlighting programs, best practices, and tips for creating communities of learning and engagement via technology. Presenters will address marketing/outreach, barriers to virtual participation, strategies for holding interactive and inclusive conversations, and more. https://acl.gov/news-and-events/announcements/webinar-79-successfully-engaging-older-adults-and-adults-disabilities

July 16, 2020; 9-10 a.m. COVID-19 transmission, similarities and differences with other respiratory pathogens. Join this webinar from The Union to learn about coronaviruses in animals and how that helps us direct the diagnosis and control of SARS-CoV2 in humans, and about genomic epidemiology of respiratory pathogens. https://register.gotowebinar.com/register/1738625158576397839

July 23, 2020; 1-2:30 p.m. How PubMed® works: Automatic term mapping. Attend this webinar to get an advanced look at how PubMed uses automatic term mapping (ATM) to map your keyword searches to the controlled vocabulary of the MeSH database. It will also take an in-depth look at author name searching. Come ready to do some exercises. Presented by the National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NNLM). https://nnlm.gov/class/how-pubmed-works-atm/25804

Websites and reports on trending topics*

Building the evidence on best practices to engage private industry in childhood obesity prevention - This assessment employed a mixed-methods approach to examine a sample of private sector commitments and a range of business practices in place to address the U.S. childhood overweight and obesity epidemic. From the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF). https://www.rwjf.org/en/library/research/2020/06/building-the-evidence-on-best-practices-to-engage-private-indust.html

Five trainings for health professionals to integrate racial equity into practice - To build skills, knowledge, and learning for health professionals, the Public Health Foundation has curated a set of five high quality, recent, and complementary trainings. http://www.phf.org/phfpulse/Pages/Five_Trainings_for_Health_Professionals_to_Integrate_Racial_Equity_Into_Practice.aspx

HealthReach - This database from the National Library of Medicine provides free multilingual, multicultural health information and patient education materials for those working with or providing services to people with limited English proficiency.  https://healthreach.nlm.nih.gov/

Preparing for Pandemics in the Modern World e-book - Texas A&M University Press has made available to the public a free and downloadable ebook edition of Preparing for Pandemics in the Modern World. The book, which will be formally published later this fall, was already in development before the outbreak of the current COVID-19 pandemic.  http://www.tamupress.com/pandemics-ebook/

Special Pandemic Issue of the Journal of Law and the Biosciences - Free articles and essays from the Journal of Law and the Biosciences on governance in a time of pandemic. https://blog.petrieflom.law.harvard.edu/2020/06/09/pandemic-issue-journal-of-law-and-the-biosciences/

Journal articles of note*

Fidel PL, Noverr MC. Could an unrelated live attenuated vaccine serve as a preventive measure to dampen septic inflammation associated with COVID-19 infection? mBio. 2020;11(3):e00907-20. Published 2020 Jun 19. doi:10.1128/mBio.00907-20
We propose the concept that administration of an unrelated live attenuated vaccine, such as MMR (measles, mumps, rubella), could serve as a preventive measure against the worst sequelae of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). There is mounting evidence that live attenuated vaccines provide nonspecific protection against lethal infections unrelated to the target pathogen of the vaccine by inducing "trained" nonspecific innate immune cells for improved host responses against subsequent infections. Mortality in COVID-19 cases is strongly associated with progressive lung inflammation and eventual sepsis. Vaccination with MMR in immunocompetent individuals has no contraindications and may be especially effective for health care workers who can easily be exposed to COVID-19. Following the lead of other countries conducting clinical trials with the live attenuated Mycobacterium bovis BCG (BCG) vaccine under a similar concept, a clinical trial with MMR in high-risk populations may provide a "low-risk-high-reward" preventive measure in saving lives during this unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic. 

Franco-Paredes C, Jankousky K, Schultz J, et al. COVID-19 in jails and prisons: A neglected infection in a marginalized population. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020;14(6):e0008409. Published 2020 Jun 22. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0008409 

Jo Y, Shrestha S, Gomes I, et al. Model-based cost-effectiveness of state-level latent tuberculosis interventions in California, Florida, New York and Texas [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 25]. Clin Infect Dis. 2020;ciaa857. doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa857 
Background: Targeted testing and treatment (TTT) for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is a recommended strategy to accelerate TB reductions and further tuberculosis elimination in the United States (US). Evidence on cost-effectiveness of TTT for key populations can help advance this goal. 
Methods: We used a model of TB transmission to estimate the numbers of individuals who could be tested by interferon-? release assay (IGRA) and treated for LTBI with three months of self-administered rifapentine and isoniazid (3HP) under various TTT scenarios. Specifically, we considered rapidly scaling up TTT among people who are non-US-born, diabetic, HIV-positive, homeless or incarcerated in California, Florida, New York, and Texas - states where more than half of US TB cases occur. We projected costs (from the healthcare system perspective, in 2018 dollars), thirty-year reductions in TB incidence, and incremental cost effectiveness (cost per quality-adjusted life year [QALY] gained) for TTT in each modeled population. 
Results: The projected cost effectiveness of TTT differed substantially by state and population, while the health impact (number of TB cases averted) was consistently greatest among the non-US-born. TTT was most cost-effective among persons living with HIV (from $2,828/QALY gained in Florida to $11,265/QALY gained in New York) and least cost-effective among people with diabetes (from $223,041/QALY gained in California to $817,753 /QALY in New York). 
Conclusions: The modeled cost-effectiveness of TTT for LTBI varies across states but was consistently greatest among people living with HIV, moderate among people who are non-US-born, incarcerated, or homeless, and least cost-effective among people living with diabetes. 

Pounders K, Agarwal D, Lindstadt CJ, Love B, Khurshid A. Child blood lead testing rates in Texas. Glob Pediatr Health. 2020;7:2333794X20931607. Published 2020 Jun 15. doi:10.1177/2333794X20931607

Swetnam DM, Stuart JB, Young K, et al. Movement of St. Louis encephalitis virus in the Western United States, 2014- 2018. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020;14(6):e0008343. Published 2020 Jun 10. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0008343
St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) is a flavivirus that circulates in an enzootic cycle between birds and mosquitoes and can also infect humans to cause febrile disease and sometimes encephalitis. Although SLEV is endemic to the United States, no activity was detected in California during the years 2004 through 2014, despite continuous surveillance in mosquitoes and sentinel chickens. In 2015, SLEV-positive mosquito pools were detected in Maricopa County, Arizona, concurrent with an outbreak of human SLEV disease. SLEV-positive mosquito pools were also detected in southeastern California and Nevada in summer 2015. From 2016 to 2018, SLEV was detected in mosquito pools throughout southern and central California, Oregon, Idaho, and Texas. To understand genetic relatedness and geographic dispersal of SLEV in the western United States since 2015, we sequenced four historical genomes (3 from California and 1 from Louisiana) and 26 contemporary SLEV genomes from mosquito pools from locations across the western US. Bayesian phylogeographic approaches were then applied to map the recent spread of SLEV. Three routes of SLEV dispersal in the western United States were identified: Arizona to southern California, Arizona to Central California, and Arizona to all locations east of the Sierra Nevada mountains. Given the topography of the Western United States, these routes may have been limited by mountain ranges that influence the movement of avian reservoirs and mosquito vectors, which probably represents the primary mechanism of SLEV dispersal. Our analysis detected repeated SLEV introductions from Arizona into southern California and limited evidence of year-to-year persistence of genomes of the same ancestry. By contrast, genetic tracing suggests that all SLEV activity since 2015 in central California is the result of a single persistent SLEV introduction. The identification of natural barriers that influence SLEV dispersal enhances our understanding of arbovirus ecology in the western United States and may also support regional public health agencies in implementing more targeted vector mitigation efforts to protect their communities more effectively. 

New e-books at the MRL

The Public Health Digital Library (PHDL)* has added six new e-books to the STAT!Ref collection:

1. Calculating and Reporting Healthcare Statistics, 5th ed. (2017).
2. Essentials of Epidemiology in Public Health, 4th ed. (2020).
3. Evidence-Based Public Health, 3rd ed. (2018).
4. Oral-Systemic Health Connection: A Guide to Patient Care, The, 2nd ed. (2019).
5. Pharmacoepidemiology, 6th Ed. (2020).
6. Public Health Emergency Preparedness (2019).

*Access these e-books and other resources from PHDL from their resource portal. Access is IP driven and requires a VPN connection if working remotely.

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Last updated September 3, 2020