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Medical and Research Library News - June 2018

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News and training opportunities
Cool websites and reports on hot topics*
Interesting journal articles*
New Books*

June 2018

mrl-diamondNews and training opportunities

Note: The following webinars and online classes are not affiliated with DSHS or the DSHS Library. They are presented here as opportunities to learn more information of interest to public health personnel.

June 5, 2018 2:00 - 3:30 p.m. The Intersection of Opioid Abuse, Overdose, and Suicide: Understanding the Connections. This webinar will examine current research on the connections between opioid abuse, overdose, and suicide. It will look at national data—exploring what they reveal about the relationship between these problems and what is still not known—as well as some of the ways state-, tribe-, and jurisdiction-level data can fill critical data gaps. Presented by Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). https://captconnect.edc.org/event/10056

June 6, 2018 11:00 - 12:00 p.m. CC Grand Rounds: 1) Reversing the Tide: Diagnosis and Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes in African Descent Populations and 2) Race/Ethnic Variations in Diabetes Risk Prediction: Insights from Metabolic Studies. Presented by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. https://videocast.nih.gov/summary.asp?live=27909&bhcp=1

June 6, 2018 1:00 – 2:00 p.m. AHD Webinar Series: Building AHD Partnerships in Rural Areas. Academic health department (AHD) partnerships – formal partnerships between health departments and academic institutions – have the potential to offer all organizations involved a variety of benefits. Lisa Macon Harrison, MPH, Health Director for Granville Vance Public Health in North Carolina, will join the webinar to share her health department’s experiences developing an AHD partnership in a rural area and the impact this partnership is having for her organization, and will be available for questions and discussion. http://www.phf.org/events/Pages/AHD_Webinar_2018June_Building_AHD_Partnerships_In_Rural_Areas.aspx

June 7, 2018 1:00 - 2:00 p.m. Bridging the Cultural Divide-The Role of Community Health Representatives/Workers in Environmental Public Health. This session will examine key indoor environmental hazards including those related to natural and technological disasters, strategies to protect vulnerable populations, and the specific roles community health workers can play in enabling healthy homes and improving environmental health literacy. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.  https://register.gotowebinar.com/register/6997377051748390915

June 13, 2018 11:00 - 12:00 p.m. The Current Understanding of Pre-Pregnancy Weight, Gestational Weight Gain, and the Impacts on Maternal and Child Health Among Women with Obesity: A Virtual Workshop. This webinar will: explore new evidence on trends and associated health outcomes; discuss promising interventions, including patient-centered counseling; and highlight limitations of the current evidence and research gaps. From the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine. http://nationalacademies.org/hmd/Activities/Nutrition/ObesitySolutions/2018-JUN-13.aspx

June 14, 2018 12:00 - 1:00 p.m. Navigating Barriers to Treatment for Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Primary Care Settings. This webinar will outline the financial impact of hepatitis C virus on US healthcare, common restrictions of HCV treatment among payers, and the successful acquisition of DAA therapy. Presented by National Center for Health in Public Housing. https://register.gotowebinar.com/register/6427662903387363841

June 15, 2018 11:00 - 12:30 p.m. The Role of Genomics in Health Promotion, Communication and Behavioral Science. Public health approaches to community engagement and implementation science are needed to increase the reach and equity of genomics implementation. In turn, genomics could benefit efforts to assess risk for disease and measure effects of exposures and interventions. This seminar will explore how health educators and behavioral scientists can contribute to progress in genomics implementation and how their fields can benefit from genomics, providing examples of successes and limitations. Sponsored by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). https://www.cdc.gov/genomics/events/public_health_genomics_series.htm

June 19, 2018 12:00 p.m. Adverse Childhood Experiences: A Driver of the Opioid Epidemic. The webinar will cover the role of Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) as a driver of the opioid epidemic. Dr. Brumage will review the landmark study as well as local data showing a strong association and reviewing the science of ACEs and how it affects our bodies over a lifetime. Understanding of ACEs is instrumental to understanding the opioid epidemic and all our society’s addictions. Sponsored by Purdue University. http://www.canr.msu.edu/ncrcrd/uploads/files/MBrumage_June_19.pdf

June 22, 2018 11:00 - 12:00 p.m. PubMed and Beyond: Clinical Resources from the National Library of Medicine. This presentation will introduce free bedside information resources for the busy clinician. From National Network of Libraries of Medicine. https://nnlm.gov/class/pubmedbeyond0618

June 27, 2018 1:00 - 2:00 p.m. Use of Microbial Source Tracking Tools in Waterborne Disease Outbreak Response. EPA’s Safe and Sustainable Water Resources research program provides the science and innovative technologies that the Agency and the nation need to maintain drinking water resources and systems, as well as to protect the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the nation’s waters. From the Environmental Protection Agency. https://register.gotowebinar.com/register/5851744209852403970

mrl-diamondCool websites and reports on hot topics*

2017 Profile of Older Americans  - An annual summary of the latest statistics on the older population compiled primarily from U.S. Census data, including population, income and poverty, living arrangements, education, health, and caregiving. https://www.acl.gov/sites/default/files/Aging%20and%20Disability%20in%20America/2017OlderAmericansProfile.pdf

The Annual Review of Public Health – This publication covers significant developments in the field of public health, including key developments and issues in epidemiology and biostatistics, environmental and occupational health, social environment and behavior, health services, and public health practice and policy.  https://www.annualreviews.org/toc/publhealth/current

The Characteristics of Pandemic Pathogens - The Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security conducted this study to elucidate the characteristics of naturally occurring microorganisms that constitute a global catastrophic biologic risk (GCBR). It provides an inductive, microbe-agnostic analysis of the microbial world to identify fundamental principles that underlie this special category of microorganisms that have potential to cause global catastrophe. http://www.centerforhealthsecurity.org/our-work/publications/the-characteristics-of-pandemic-pathogens

Communicating the Health Effects of Climate Change: A Toolkit for Public Health Outreach - The CDC Climate and Health Program developed the following slides in collaboration with climate communication experts to help public health professionals talk about the health harms of climate change. https://www.cdc.gov/climateandhealth/docs/ClimateandHealthPresentationGRANTEES-508.pdf
The impact of HIV and AIDS on the world of work: Global estimates  - This report provides snapshots at five-year intervals of HIV prevalence, deaths, and full and partial inability to work for the male and female labor force by country, for various groups of countries and globally. It also gives estimates for other key economic and social impacts (lost earnings, additional care work, child labor and impact on children's education).  http://www.ilo.org/global/publications/books/WCMS_630166/lang--en/index.htm

Map the Meal Gap 2018 - The 2018 annual analysis of food insecurity down to the county and congressional district level that serves as a powerful tool to advocate for hunger relief and educate Americans about the reality of hunger in our country. http://www.feedingamerica.org/research/map-the-meal-gap/2016/2016-map-the-meal-gap-all-modules.pdf

Outbreaks Associated with Treated Recreational Water - United States, 2000-2014 - During 2000-2014, 493 outbreaks associated with treated recreational water caused at least 27,219 cases and eight deaths. Outbreaks caused by Cryptosporidium increased 25% per year during 2000-2006; however, no significant trend occurred after 2007. The number of outbreaks caused by Legionella increased 14% per year.  https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/wr/mm6719a3.htm?s_cid=mm6719a3_e

Providing Access to Mental Health Services for Children in Rural Areas - This policy brief identifies the barriers to providing mental health services to children in rural areas, outlines policy options, and provides case studies of successful programs, including Project ECHO and school-based health centers. From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). https://www.cdc.gov/ruralhealth/child-health/policybrief.html

Public Health Consequences of E-Cigarettes  - Report reviews and critically assesses the state of the emerging evidence about e-cigarettes and health. This report makes recommendations for the improvement of this research and highlights gaps that are a priority for future research. https://www.nap.edu/catalog/24952/public-health-consequences-of-e-cigarettes

mrl-diamondInteresting journal articles*

Case K, Mantey D, Creamer M, Harrell M, Kelder S, Perry C. E-cigarette- specific symptoms of nicotine dependence among Texas adolescents. Addict Behav. 2018;84:56-61.
INTRODUCTION: The potential of e-cigarettes to elicit symptoms of nicotine dependence has not been adequately studied, particularly in adolescent populations. The present study examined the prevalence of e-cigarette-specific symptoms of nicotine dependence ("symptoms of e-cigarette dependence") and the associations between these symptoms, e-cigarette usage group, and e-cigarette cessation-related items among Texas adolescents.
METHODS: This study involved a cross-sectional analysis of adolescents from Wave 4 of the Texas Adolescent Tobacco and Marketing Surveillance System (TATAMS) (n = 2891/N = 461,069). Chi-Square analyses examined differences in the prevalence of symptoms of dependence by e-cigarette usage group (exclusive versus dual users of e-cigarettes and combustible tobacco products) and demographic characteristics. Weighted multivariable logistic regression analyses examined the associations between symptoms of e-cigarette dependence, e-cigarette usage group, and e-cigarette cessation items.
RESULTS: Exclusive e-cigarette users experienced symptoms of e-cigarette dependence, although the prevalence of most of the symptoms was higher for dual users. Adolescents who reported more symptoms of dependence were less likely to report both wanting to quit e-cigarettes and a past-year quit attempt for e-cigarettes (adjusted odds ratio "AOR" = 0.61 (95% CI = 0.41, 0.92) and AOR = 0.52 (95% CI = 0.30, 0.92), respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to demonstrate that adolescent e-cigarette users are experiencing symptoms of dependence specific to e-cigarettes. In addition, symptoms of dependence may be barriers to e-cigarette cessation. Future research is needed to determine if characteristics of e-cigarette use (e.g. frequency and intensity) are associated with dependence.

Chrisinger B, Kallan M, Whiteman E, Hillier A. Where do U.S. households purchase healthy foods? An analysis of food-at-home purchases across different types of retailers in a nationally representative dataset. Prev Med. 2018;112:15-22.
Food shopping decisions are pathways between food environment, diet and health outcomes, including chronic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. The choices of where to shop and what to buy are interrelated, though a better understanding of this dynamic is needed. The U.S. Department of Agriculture's nationally representative Food Acquisitions and Purchase Survey food-at-home dataset was joined with other databases of retailer characteristics and Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI) of purchases. We used linear regression models with general estimating equations to assess relationships between trip, store, and shopper characteristics with trip HEI scores. We examined HEI component scores for conventional supermarkets and discount/limited assortment retailers with descriptive statistics. Overall, 4962 shoppers made 11,472 shopping trips over one-week periods, 2012-2013. Trips to conventional supermarkets were the most common (53.6%), followed by supercenters (18.6%). Compared to conventional supermarkets, purchases at natural/gourmet stores had significantly higher HEI scores (β = 6.48, 95% CI = [4.45, 8.51], while those from "other" retailers (including corner and convenience stores) were significantly lower (-3.89, [-5.87, -1.92]). Older participants (versus younger) and women (versus men) made significantly healthier purchases (1.19, [0.29, 2.10]). Shoppers with less than some college education made significantly less-healthy purchases, versus shoppers with more education, as did households participating in SNAP, versus those with incomes above 185% of the Federal Poverty Level. Individual, trip, and store characteristics influenced the healthfulness of foods purchased. Interventions to encourage healthy purchasing should reflect these dynamics in terms of how, where, and for whom they are implemented.

Gabel F, Jürges H, Kruk K, Listl S. Gain a child, lose a tooth? Using natural experiments to distinguish between fact and fiction. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2018;72(6):552-556.
BACKGROUND: Dental diseases are among the most frequent diseases globally and tooth loss imposes a substantial burden on peoples' quality of life. Non-experimental evidence suggests that individuals with more children have more missing teeth than individuals with fewer children, but until now there is no causal evidence for or against this.
METHODS: Using a Two-Stage Least Squares (2SLS) instrumental variables approach and large-scale cross-sectional data from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (study sample: 34 843 non-institutionalised individuals aged 50+ from 14 European countries and Israel; data were collected in 2013), we investigated the causal relationship between the number of biological children and their parents' number of missing natural teeth. Thereby, we exploited random natural variation in family size resulting from (i) the birth of multiples vs singletons, and (ii) the sex composition of the two first-born children (increased likelihood of a third child if the two first-born children have the same sex).
RESULTS: 2SLS regressions detected a strong causal relationship between the number of children and teeth for women but not for men when an additional birth occurred after the first two children had the same sex. Women then had an average of 4.27 (95% CI: 1.08 to 7.46) fewer teeth than women without an additional birth whose first two children had different sexes.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides novel evidence for causal links between the number of children and the number of missing teeth. An additional birth might be detrimental to the mother's but not the father's oral health.

Goddu A, O'Conor K, Lanzkron S, et al. Do words matter? stigmatizing language and the transmission of bias in the medical record. J Gen Intern Med. 2018;33(5):685-691.
BACKGROUND: Clinician bias contributes to healthcare disparities, and the language used to describe a patient may reflect that bias. Although medical records are an integral method of communicating about patients, no studies have evaluated patient records as a means of transmitting bias from one clinician to another.
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether stigmatizing language written in a patient medical record is associated with a subsequent physician-in-training's attitudes towards the patient and clinical decision-making.
DESIGN: Randomized vignette study of two chart notes employing stigmatizing versus neutral language to describe the same hypothetical patient, a 28-year-old man with sickle cell disease.
PARTICIPANTS: A total of 413 physicians-in-training: medical students and residents in internal and emergency medicine programs at an urban academic medical center (54% response rate).
MAIN MEASURES: Attitudes towards the hypothetical patient using the previously validated Positive Attitudes towards Sickle Cell Patients Scale (range 7-35) and pain management decisions (residents only) using two multiple-choice questions (composite range 2-7 representing intensity of pain treatment).
KEY RESULTS: Exposure to the stigmatizing language note was associated with more negative attitudes towards the patient (20.6 stigmatizing vs. 25.6 neutral, p < 0.001). Furthermore, reading the stigmatizing language note was associated with less aggressive management of the patient's pain (5.56 stigmatizing vs. 6.22 neutral, p = 0.003).
CONCLUSIONS: Stigmatizing language used in medical records to describe patients can influence subsequent physicians-in-training in terms of their attitudes towards the patient and their medication prescribing behavior. This is an important and overlooked pathway by which bias can be propagated from one clinician to another. Attention to the language used in medical records may help to promote patient-centered care and to reduce healthcare disparities for stigmatized populations.

Hales C, Kit B, Gu Q, Ogden C. Trends in prescription medication use among children and adolescents-United States, 1999-2014. JAMA. 2018;319(19):2009-2020.
IMPORTANCE: Access to appropriate prescription medications, use of inappropriate or ineffective treatments, and adverse drug events are public health concerns among US children and adolescents.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate trends in use of prescription medications among US children and adolescents.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: US children and adolescents aged 0 to 19 years in the 1999-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)-serial cross-sectional, nationally representative surveys of the civilian noninstitutionalized population.
EXPOSURES: Sex, age, race and Hispanic origin, household income and education, insurance status, current health status.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Use of any prescription medications or 2 or more prescription medications taken in the past 30 days; use of medications by therapeutic class; trends in medication use across 4-year periods from 1999-2002 to 2011-2014. Data were collected though in-home interview and direct observation of the prescription container.
RESULTS: Data on prescription medication use were available for 38 277 children and adolescents (mean age, 10 years; 49% girls). Overall, use of any prescription medication in the past 30 days decreased from 24.6% (95% CI, 22.6% to 26.6%) in 1999-2002 to 21.9% (95% CI, 20.3% to 23.6%) in 2011-2014 (β = -0.41 percentage points every 2 years [95% CI, -0.79 to -0.03]; P = .04), but there was no linear trend in the use of 2 or more prescription medications (8.5% [95% CI, 7.6% to 9.4%] in 2011-2014). In 2011-2014, the most commonly used medication classes were asthma medications (6.1% [95% CI, 5.4% to 6.8%]), antibiotics (4.5% [95% CI, 3.7% to 5.5%]), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications (3.5% [95% CI, 2.9% to 4.2%]), topical agents (eg, dermatologic agents, nasal steroids) (3.5% [95% CI, 3.0% to 4.1%]), and antihistamines (2.0% [95% CI, 1.7% to 2.5%]). There were significant linear trends in 14 of 39 therapeutic classes or subclasses, or in individual medications, with 8 showing increases, including asthma and ADHD medications and contraceptives, and 6 showing decreases, including antibiotics, antihistamines, and upper respiratory combination medications.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this study of US children and adolescents based on a nationally representative survey, estimates of prescription medication use showed an overall decrease in use of any medication from 1999-2014. The prevalence of asthma medication, ADHD medication, and contraceptive use increased among certain age groups, whereas use of antibiotics, antihistamines, and upper respiratory combination medications decreased.

Jemal A, Miller K, Ma J, et al. Higher lung cancer incidence in young women than young men in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2018;378(21):1999-2009.
BACKGROUND: Previous studies showed a higher incidence of lung cancer among young women than among young men in the United States. Whether this pattern has continued in contemporary birth cohorts and, if so, whether it can be fully explained by sex differences in smoking behaviors are unknown.
METHODS: We examined the nationwide population-based incidence of lung cancer according to sex, race or ethnic group, age group (30 to 34, 35 to 39, 40 to 44, 45 to 49, and 50 to 54 years), year of birth (1945 to 1980), and calendar period of diagnosis (1995-1999, 2000-2004, 2005-2009, and 2010-2014), and we calculated female-to-male incidence rate ratios. We also examined the prevalence of cigarette smoking, using data from the National Health Interview Survey from 1970 to 2016.
RESULTS: Over the past two decades, the age-specific incidence of lung cancer has generally decreased among both men and women 30 to 54 years of age in all races and ethnic groups, but the declines among men have been steeper. Consequently, among non-Hispanic whites, the female-to-male incidence rate ratios increased, exceeding 1.0 in the age groups of 30 to 34, 35 to 39, 40 to 44, and 45 to 49 years. For example, the female-to-male incidence rate ratio among whites 40 to 44 years of age increased from 0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84 to 0.92) during the 1995-1999 period to 1.17 (95% CI, 1.11 to 1.23) during the 2010-2014 period. The crossover in sex-specific rates occurred among non-Hispanic whites born since 1965. Sex-specific incidence rates converged among non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic Asians and Pacific Islanders but crossed over from a higher incidence among men to a higher incidence among women only among Hispanics. The prevalence of cigarette smoking among women born since 1965 has approached, but generally not exceeded, the prevalence among men.
CONCLUSIONS: The patterns of historically higher incidence rates of lung cancer among men than among women have reversed among non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics born since the mid-1960s, and they are not fully explained by sex differences in smoking behaviors. Future studies are needed to identify reasons for the higher incidence of lung cancer among young women. (Funded by the American Cancer Society.).

Lanphear B, Rauch S, Auinger P, Allen R, Hornung R. Low-level lead exposure and mortality in US adults: a population-based cohort study. Lancet Public Health. 2018;3(4)e177-e184.
BACKGROUND: Lead exposure is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease mortality, but the number of deaths in the USA attributable to lead exposure is poorly defined. We aimed to quantify the relative contribution of environmental lead exposure to all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease mortality, and ischaemic heart disease mortality.
METHODS: Our study population comprised a nationally representative sample of adults aged 20 years or older who were enrolled in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-III) between 1988 and 1994 and followed up to Dec 31, 2011. Participants had completed a medical examination and home interview and had results for concentrations of lead in blood, cadmium in urine, and other relevant covariates. Individuals were linked with the National Death Index. This study presents extended follow-up of an earlier analysis.
FINDINGS: We included 14 289 adults in our study. The geometric mean concentration of lead in blood was 2·71 μg/dL (geometric SE 1·31). 3632 (20%) participants had a concentration of lead in blood of at least 5 μg/dL (≥0·24 μmol/L). During median follow-up of 19·3 years (IQR 17·6-21·0), 4422 people died, 1801 (38%) from cardiovascular disease and 988 (22%) from ischaemic heart disease. An increase in the concentration of lead in blood from 1·0 μg/dL to 6·7 μg/dL (0·048 μmol/L to 0·324 μmol/L), which represents the tenth to 90th percentiles, was associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 1·37, 95% CI 1·17-1·60), cardiovascular disease mortality (1·70, 1·30-2·22), and ischaemic heart disease mortality (2·08, 1·52-2·85). The population attributable fraction of the concentration of lead in blood for all-cause mortality was 18·0% (95% CI 10·9-26·1), which is equivalent to 412 000 deaths annually. Respective fractions were 28·7% (15·5-39·5) for cardiovascular disease mortality and 37·4% (23·4-48·6) for ischaemic heart disease mortality, which correspond to 256 000 deaths a year from cardiovascular disease and 185 000 deaths a year from ischaemic heart disease.

McGinty E, Goldman H, Pescosolido B, Barry C. Communicating about mental illness and violence: balancing stigma and increased support for services. J Health Polit Policy Law. 2018;43(2):185-228.
In the ongoing national policy debate about how to best address serious mental illness (SMI), a major controversy among mental health advocates is whether drawing public attention to an apparent link between SMI and violence, shown to elevate stigma, is the optimal strategy for increasing public support for investing in mental health services or whether nonstigmatizing messages can be equally effective. We conducted a randomized experiment to examine this question. Participants in a nationally representative online panel (N = 1,326) were randomized to a control arm or to read one of three brief narratives about SMI emphasizing violence, systemic barriers to treatment, or successful treatment and recovery. Narratives, or stories about individuals, are a common communication strategy used by policy makers, advocates, and the news media. Study results showed that narratives emphasizing violence or barriers to treatment were equally effective in increasing the public's willingness to pay additional taxes to improve the mental health system (55 percent and 52 percent, vs. 42 percent in the control arm). Only the narrative emphasizing the link between SMI and violence increased stigma. For mental health advocates dedicated to improving the public mental health system, these findings offer an alternative to stigmatizing messages linking mental illness and violence.

Naimi T, Xuan Z, Sarda V, et al. Association of state alcohol policies with alcohol-related motor vehicle crash fatalities among US adults. JAMA Intern Med. 2018; Epub ahead of print.
IMPORTANCE: Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of mortality. However, the association between the restrictiveness of the alcohol policy environment (ie, based on multiple existing policies) and alcohol-related crash fatalities has not been characterized previously to date.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between the restrictiveness of state alcohol policy environments and the likelihood of alcohol involvement among those dying in motor vehicle crashes in the United States.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This investigation was a repeated cross-sectional study in which state alcohol policies (operationalized by the Alcohol Policy Scale [APS]) from 1999 to 2014 were related to motor vehicle crash fatalities from 2000 to 2015 using data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (1-year lag). Alternating logistic regression models and generalized estimating equations were used to account for clustering of multiple deaths within a crash and of multiple crashes occurring within states. The study also examined independent associations of mutually exclusive subgroups of policies, including consumption-oriented policies vs driving-oriented policies. The study setting was the 50 US states. Participants were 505 614 decedents aged at least 21 years from motor vehicle crashes from 2000 to 2015.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Odds that a crash fatality was alcohol related (fatality stemmed from a crash in which ≥1 driver had a blood alcohol concentration [BAC] ≥0.08%).
RESULTS: From 2000 to 2015, there were 505 614 adult motor vehicle crash fatalities in the United States, of which 178 795 (35.4%) were alcohol related. Each 10-percentage point increase in the APS score (corresponding to more restrictive state policies) was associated with reduced individual-level odds of alcohol involvement in a crash fatality (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.90; 95% CI, 0.89-0.91); results were consistent among most demographic and crash-type strata. More restrictive policies also had protective associations with alcohol involvement among crash fatalities associated with BACs from greater than 0.00% to less than 0.08%. After accounting for driving-oriented policies, consumption-oriented policies were independently protective for alcohol-related crash fatalities (aOR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.96-0.98 based on a 10-percentage point increased APS score).
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Strengthening alcohol policies, including those that do not specifically target impaired driving, could reduce alcohol-related crash fatalities. Policies may also protect against crash fatalities involving BAC levels below the current legal limit for driving in the United States.

Simonetti A, Ezzeldin H, Walderhaug M, Anderson S, Forshee R. An inter-regional US blood supply simulation model to evaluate blood availability to support planning for emergency preparedness and medical countermeasures. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2018;12(2):201-210.
OBJECTIVES: Planning for a response to threats like pandemics or mass casualty events is a national priority. The US blood supply system can be particularly vulnerable to such events. It is important to understand the impacts of emergency situations on blood availability and the resiliency of the US blood supply system.
METHODS: On the basis of the Stock-and-Flow simulation model of the US blood supply system, we developed an inter-regional blood transfer system representing the action of multiple blood collectors and distributors to enable effective planning of strategies to minimize collection and donation disruptions to the blood supply system in the event of a national emergency.
RESULTS: We simulated a pandemic or mass casualty event on both a national and an inter-regional blood supply system. Differences in the estimated impacts demonstrated the importance of incorporating spatial and temporal variations of blood collection and utilization across US regions. The absence of blood shortage in both emergency scenarios highlighted the resilience of the inter-regional system to meet the potential associated blood demand.
CONCLUSIONS: Our inter-regional model considered complex factors and can be a valuable tool to assist regulatory decision-making and strategic planning for emergency preparedness to avoid and mitigate associated adverse health consequences.

Vielot N, Stamm L, Herrington J, et al. United States travelers' concern about Zika infection and willingness to receive a hypothetical Zika vaccine. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2018;Epub ahead of print.  
The ongoing Zika pandemic has affected many countries that are common travel destinations. We assessed the willingness to receive a prophylactic Zika virus (ZIKV) vaccine, currently under development, among travelers to areas with reported autochthonous ZIKV transmission. We surveyed United States (U.S.) residents aged 18-44 years who had ever heard of ZIKV and planned to travel to Florida and/or Texas (N = 420) or a U.S. territory or foreign country (N = 415) in 2017, using a nationally representative internet panel. Travelers to Florida and/or Texas reported less concern about ZIKV infection than travelers to other destinations (27% versus 36%, P = 0.01). Female gender, Hispanic ethnicity, discussing ZIKV with medical professionals, ZIKV risk perception, and self-efficacy for ZIKV prevention predicted concern about ZIKV infection in both groups. Travelers to Florida and/or Texas (43%) and other destinations (44%) were equally willing to receive a ZIKV vaccine. Hispanic ethnicity, discussing ZIKV with medical professionals, and concern about ZIKV infection predicted vaccine willingness in both groups. Likelihood of using existing ZIKV prevention methods, confidence in the U.S. government to prevent ZIKV spread, self-efficacy for ZIKV prevention, and knowledge about ZIKV symptoms further predicted vaccine willingness in travelers to other destinations. In multivariable analyses, the only concern about ZIKV infection was associated with vaccine willingness in both groups (prevalence ratio [95% confidence interval]: Florida and/or Texas: 1.34 [1.06, 1.69]; other: 1.82 [1.44, 2.29]). Targeted communications can educate travelers, particularly travelers who are pregnant or may become pregnant, about ZIKV risk to generate ZIKV vaccine demand, regardless of intended destinations.

mrl-diamondNew Books*

1. Baby and toddler basics : expert answers to parents' top 150 questions. By Tanya Altmann
2. Caring for young children with special needs. By Cindy Croft.
3. Childhood speech and language disorders : supporting children and families on the path to communication. By Suzanne M. Ducharme.
4. Developing empathy in the early years : a guide for practitioners. By Helen Garnett.
5. Early language intervention for infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. By Robert E. Owens.
6. Educational advocacy for students who are deaf or hard of hearing : the hands & voices guidebook. By Cheryl Johnson.
7. Emotional and behavioral problems of young children : effective interventions in the preschool and kindergarten years. By Melissa Holland.
Research and practice in infant and early childhood mental health. By Cory Shulman.

*For More Information:  Employees may contact the Medical and Research Library at library@dshs.texas.gov, call 512-776-7559, or come by Moreton Building, Room M-652, to borrow a print book, receive password access to a journal, receive other research assistance, or to obtain full-text of the articles mentioned in this month's news. If you are not located on the main campus in Austin, simply let us know what you would like to borrow and we will mail it to you.

Fine print section: If any of the internet links do not open for you, please let us know and we will send you what you need. The MRL Library News e-mail is sent about once a month or when important library news or events occur. If you have co-workers who would like to subscribe, please e-mail library@dshs.texas.gov. If for any reason you would like to unsubscribe, please send an e-mail to library@dshs.texas.gov with Unsubscribe in the subject line. Recent issues of this newsletter are on the web at http://www.dshs.texas.gov/library/news.shtm. Thank you!

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Last updated August 2, 2018