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Medical and Research Library News - June 2020

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External links to other sites are intended to be informational and do not have the endorsement of the Texas Department of State Health Services. These sites may also not be accessible to people with disabilities. The links were working at the time they were created.


Training opportunities
Websites and reports on trending topics*
Journal articles of note*

New e-books at the MRL

June 2020

Training opportunities

Note: The following webinars and online classes are not affiliated with DSHS or the DSHS Library. They are presented here as opportunities to learn more information of interest to public health personnel. All times listed are in Central Daylight Time.

June 9, 2020; 12–1 p.m. Anxiety, insomnia, & other symptoms of stress during COVID-19: Putting the pandemic in perspective. This seminar will briefly discuss the science of burnout among clinicians, researchers and clinician-researchers, discuss how this literature relates to what we know about the impact of COVID-19 on early career researchers within VA, and share self-help resources specifically designed to help our work force address these concerns. Presented by Health Services Research & Development (HSR&D). https://register.gotowebinar.com/register/6086284350229262605

June 11, 2020; 10–11 a.m. Clinical depression and COVID-19: Expanding on mental health promotion. Mental health professionals are bracing for what may be an epidemic of clinical depression related to COVID-19. This webinar from the Mental Health Technology Transfer Center will review the science on risk factors for depression that cause this grave warning, share the latest information on how individuals are responding to the current crisis, and propose best practices for depression prevention and treatment moving forward. The presentation will highlight online strategies that include disseminating evidence-based mental health tips, identifying and targeting risk groups, and conducting stepped-care treatment groups, stepping to individual treatment as needed.  https://pttcnetwork.org/centers/great-lakes-pttc/event/clinical-depression-and-covid-19-expanding-mental-health-promotion

June 18, 2020; 1–2:30 p.m. Emergency planning: Preparing for the unexpected. This webinar from The Arc will provide tips and strategies that people with disabilities, families, and disability professionals can use to help plan for when disasters strike. Tips will be applicable to the current COVID-19 pandemic, but strategies that you can use to prepare for different types of emergencies will also be discussed. https://thearc.webex.com/mw3300/mywebex/default.doservice=7&nomenu=true&main_url=/tc3300/trainingcenter/Loading.do
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June 18, 2020; 1–2:30 p.m. How PubMed works: MeSH. Attend this class to learn about the National Library of Medicine's Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) database. They will cover the four different types of MeSH terms and how searchers can benefit from using MeSH to build a search in PubMed, investigate the structure of the MeSH database, and look at the components of a MeSH record. The class includes hands-on exercises. Presented by the National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NNLM).  https://nnlm.gov/class/how-pubmed-works-mesh/22690

June 22, 2020; 2–3 p.m. Research, policies, and practices: Federal and community-level perspectives on vaping. This webinar, from the Prevention Technology Transfer Center Network, will bring together leading national experts and community-level prevention leaders to talk about the latest data and research around vaping, and the prevention approaches making impacts in communities. Additionally, panelists will weigh in with thoughts and strategies on how to approach vaping prevention amidst COVID-19 and social distancing.  https://umsystem.zoom.us/webinar/register/WN_l6SVpCv9QIKJLl7AhiDarw


Websites and reports on trending topics*

Covid-evidence – This resource collects up-to-date trial information as well as links to original sources such as study protocol documents, registry entries, and publications. In addition, it provides reliably extracted key trial information that would otherwise only be accessible by reading every manuscript in detail. From the Department of Clinical Research at University of Basel and the Meta-Research Innovation Center at Stanford with other international partners and collaborators.  https://covid-evidence.org/

COVID-19 pandemic operational guidance for the 2020 hurricane season - To help emergency managers and public health officials respond to incidents during the 2020 hurricane season amid the COVID-19 pandemic, Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is releasing the COVID-19 Pandemic Operational Guidance for the 2020 Hurricane Season.  https://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/1589997234798-adb5ce5cb98a7a89e3e1800becf0eb65/2020_Hurricane_Pandemic_Plan.pdf

FastStats A?Z – The FastStats site provides quick access to statistics on topics of public health importance and is organized alphabetically. Links are provided to publications that include the statistics presented, to sources of more data, and to related web pages. From the National Center for Health Statistics at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(NCHS).  https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/default.htm

Health Services and Sciences Research resources - HSRR has information about research datasets, instruments, and software used in Health Services Research, Behavioral and Social Sciences, and Public Health. Descriptions and links to PubMed are included. HSRR includes clinical records, discharge summaries, claims records, epidemiological surveys, health/ behavioral/ social surveys, disease registries, birth registries, and data about practitioners, programs, and facilities.  https://wwwcf.nlm.nih.gov/hsrr_search/index.cfm

The new and improved PubMed is here! - The new PubMed features a modern interface with enhanced search results, including highlighted text snippets to help you preview an abstract while scanning your results list, and updated web elements for easier navigation. Please contact the Medical & Research Library (MRL) for help searching PubMed or obtaining full text articles. From the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). https://www.nlm.nih.gov/pubs/techbull/mj20/mj20_pubmed_new.html


Journal articles of note*

Chu DK, Akl EA, Duda S, et al. Physical distancing, face masks, and eye protection to prevent person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31142-9
Abstract
Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes COVID-19 and is spread person-to-person through close contact. We aimed to investigate the effects of physical distance, face masks, and eye protection on virus transmission in health-care and non-health-care (eg, community) settings.
Methods: We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the optimum distance for avoiding person-to-person virus transmission and to assess the use of face masks and eye protection to prevent transmission of viruses. We obtained data for SARS-CoV-2 and the betacoronaviruses that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome, and Middle East respiratory syndrome from 21 standard WHO-specific and COVID-19-specific sources. We searched these data sources from database inception to May 3, 2020, with no restriction by language, for comparative studies and for contextual factors of acceptability, feasibility, resource use, and equity. We screened records, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias in duplicate. We did frequentist and Bayesian meta-analyses and random-effects meta-regressions. We rated the certainty of evidence according to Cochrane methods and the GRADE approach. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020177047.
Findings: Our search identified 172 observational studies across 16 countries and six continents, with no randomised controlled trials and 44 relevant comparative studies in health-care and non-health-care settings (n=25,697 patients). Transmission of viruses was lower with physical distancing of 1 m or more, compared with a distance of less than 1 m (n=10,736, pooled adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.18, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.38; risk difference [RD] ?10.2%, 95% CI ?11.5 to ?7.5; moderate certainty); protection was increased as distance was lengthened (change in relative risk [RR] 2.02 per m; pinteraction=0.041; moderate certainty). Face mask use could result in a large reduction in risk of infection (n=2647; aOR 0.15, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.34, RD ?14.3%, ?15.9 to ?10.7; low certainty), with stronger associations with N95 or similar respirators compared with disposable surgical masks or similar (eg, reusable 12–16-layer cotton masks; pinteraction=0.090; posterior probability >95%, low certainty). Eye protection also was associated with less infection (n=3713; aOR 0.22, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.39, RD ?10.6%, 95% CI ?12.5 to ?7.7; low certainty). Unadjusted studies and subgroup and sensitivity analyses showed similar findings.
Interpretation: The findings of this systematic review and meta-analysis support physical distancing of 1 m or more and provide quantitative estimates for models and contact tracing to inform policy. Optimum use of face masks, respirators, and eye protection in public and health-care settings should be informed by these findings and contextual factors. Robust randomised trials are needed to better inform the evidence for these interventions, but this systematic appraisal of currently best available evidence might inform interim guidance.

El-Serag HB, Sardell R, Thrift AP, Kanwal F, Miller P. Texas has the highest hepatocellular carcinoma incidence rates in the USA. Dig Dis Sci. 2020 Apr 17. doi: 10.1007/s10620-020-06231-4. Online ahead of print.
Abstract
Background: Texas is the second largest state by area and population in the USA and is reported to have high incidence and mortality rates for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The reasons for the increasingly high burden of HCC in Texas are not clear.
Aims: We explored trends and demographic and regional variations in HCC incidence to better understand reasons for the high burden in Texas.
Methods: We analyzed Texas Cancer Registry incidence data from 2001 to 2015 and compared results to the U.S. National Program of Cancer Registries and SEER for the same period. Rates were stratified by sex, race/ethnicity, and age at diagnosis. Rates were also compared between the US/Mexico border region of Texas and the rest of Texas.
Results: Texas had the highest HCC age-adjusted incidence rate of all states, 13.2/100,000, which was 45% higher than the national average. In Texas and nationally, rates increased by 4% per year between 2001 and 2015. Rates in Texas were 26-37% greater than national rates for Hispanics, African-Americans, and non-Hispanic whites. Among Hispanics in states with the largest percentage of Hispanics, Texas-based Hispanics had the highest HCC incidence rate in 2015 (21.2/100,000) compared with Hispanics in New Mexico, California, Arizona, Nevada, and Florida. Incidence rates were highest in South Texas and US/Mexico border regions.
Conclusions: Increasing rates in the large Hispanic population may explain why Texas now has the highest HCC incidence rate in the USA.

John J, Baek J, Roh T, Cabrera-Conner L, Carrillo G. Regional disparity in asthma prevalence and distribution of asthma education programs in Texas. J Environ Public Health. doi: 10.1155/2020/9498124. eCollection 2020.
Abstract
Objectives: To identify the distribution of asthma education programs that are currently active in Texas and examine whether there is a geographical disparity between asthma prevalence and locations of asthma education programs in the Public Health Regions (PHRs) of Texas.
Methods: The data for adult asthma prevalence in PHRs was obtained from the Texas Department of State and Health Services (DSHS) 2015 Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Public Use Data File. The Geographic Information System (GIS) program was used to show the distribution of asthma education programs and visually identify the isolated areas for asthma education programs on the maps. To examine the areas covered by the asthma education programs, we illustrated 50 miles and 70 miles of buffer zones from each program by proximity (multiple ring buffer) functions in GIS.
Results: We identified that 27 asthma education programs are active in Texas as of July 2019. The analysis showed that PHRs 1, 2, and 7 had the highest rate of asthma prevalence but had fewer asthma education programs. Also, the distribution of asthma education programs is concentrated around major cities, leading to a regional imbalance between asthma prevalence and locations of asthma education programs. The central and western areas of Texas proved to be marginalized areas for asthma education programs, particularly PHRs 2 and 9 because they may not be covered by the buffer zones of 70 miles from any asthma education programs. 
Discussion: This study revealed the marginalized regions in Texas lacking asthma education programs. The findings could help policymakers and health care professionals enhance opportunities to develop asthma education programs using different venues in isolated areas and prioritize these regions, for funds, to establish new asthma education programs.

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Rapid expert consultations on the COVID-19 pandemic: March 14, 2020–April 8, 2020. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2020 Apr 30.
Excerpt
In response to a request from the Office of Science and Technology Policy and the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a standing committee of experts to help inform the federal government on critical science and policy issues related to emerging infectious diseases and other 21st century health threats. This set of Rapid Expert Consultations are the first of their kind and represent the best evidence available to the Committee at the time each publication was released. The science on these issues is continually evolving, and the scientific consensus the Committee reaches on these topics will likely evolve with it. The standing committee includes members with expertise in emerging infectious diseases, public health, public health preparedness and response, biological sciences, clinical care and crisis standards of care, risk communication, and regulatory issues.

Schick V, Witte L, Isbell F, Crouch C, Umemba L, Peña-Purcell N. A community-academic collaboration to support chronic disease self-management among individuals living in permanent supportive housing. Prog Community Health Partnersh. 2020;14(1):89-99. doi: 10.1353/cpr.2020.0011.
Abstract
Background: Individuals experiencing chronic homelessness with a chronic health condition may qualify for permanent supportive housing (PSH). Given limited PSH resources, it is important to identify priority programming with demonstrated effectiveness.
Objectives: A community-academic partnership was formed to address the priority health needs of individuals living in PSH.
Methods: Community stakeholders identified diabetes self-management as a priority health need. Wisdom, Power, Control (WPC), an evidence-based diabetes self-management program, was piloted for seven weeks with diabetic (type 2) or prediabetic PSH residents. A survey was administered at baseline and program completion. HbA1c was assessed at baseline and 3-month follow-up.
Results: Those who completed the Program (N = 10), reported a significant increase in diabetes knowledge, self-efficacy and foot self-care. The average hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of the participants significantly decreased from 8.86 to 6.88.
Conclusions: Pilot data from this study provides an example of a community-academic partnership that improved the health of individuals in PSH through evidence-based programming.


New e-books at the MRL

1. Communicable disease control and health protection handbook – Jeremy Hawker; Norman Begg.
2. The psychology of pandemics – Steven Taylor.
3. The unashamed guide to virtual management – Ben Bisbee; Kathy Wisniewski.
4. Infectious diseases: Response, recovery and trends– Philippe Georges.
5. Foundations of infectious disease: A public health perspective – David P. Adams.


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Last updated August 6, 2020