• DSHS HIV/STD Program

    Post Office Box 149347, MC 1873
    Austin, Texas 78714

    Phone: (512) 533-3000

    E-mail the HIV/STD Program

    E-mail data requests to HIV/STD Program - This email can be used to request data and statistics on HIV, TB, and STDs in Texas. It cannot be used to get treatment or infection history for individuals, or to request information on programs and services. Please do not include any personal, identifying health information in your email such as HIV status, Date of Birth, Social Security Number, etc.

    For treatment/testing history, please contact your local Health Department.

    For information on HIV testing and services available to Persons Living with HIV and AIDS, please contact your local HIV services organization.

Epi Profile Section 8 - Indicators of HIV Risk in HIV-negative Persons at High Risk for HIV

 

 

Data in this section comes from the Dallas data collection site of the National HIV Behavioral Survey (NHBS). This information may not reflect the state as a whole. For more information, please see the section Data Sources and Notes.

 


 

Table 8-1. HIV Risk Behaviors in HIV-Negative MSM, Dallas, 2014, Unweighted

MSM

Average number
of male sex
partners in
past 12 months

Had condomless anal sex with a male partner in the past 12 months

Had condomless anal sex with a male partner whose HIV status was unknown in the past 12 months

Used injection or non-injection drugs in the past 12 months

Had condomless anal sex with an HIV-positive partner in the past 12 months

Self-reported syphilis infection in the past 12 months

 

N

N

N

%

N

%

N

%

N

%

N

%

Race/Ethnicity

                       

 White

141

8

89

63%

25

18%

83

59%

13

9%

52

37%

 Black

111

5

60

54%

25

23%

59

53%

3

3%

30

27%

 Hispanic

86

6

54

63%

21

24%

47

55%

3

3%

33

38%

 Other

26

6

20

77%

8

31%

20

77%

0

0%

11

42%

Total*

368

7

227

62%

79

21%

211

57%

19

5%

129

35%

Age

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 0-14

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 15-24

65

8

41

63%

13

20%

41

63%

4

6%

25

38%

 25-34

116

8

82

71%

34

29%

65

56%

10

9%

50

43%

 35-44

89

5

53

60%

18

20%

50

56%

2

2%

33

37%

 45+

98

5

51

52%

14

14%

55

56%

3

3%

21

21%

Total

368

7

227

62%

79

21%

211

57%

19

5%

129

35%

* Four participants whose race/ethnicity was missing were included in the total

 

  • In Texas, young black MSM experience the highest rates of new HIV diagnoses (see Section 10 Men who have Sex with Men ). However, NHBS data indicates a higher proportion of HIV-negative White MSM (63%) and Hispanic MSM (63%) in Dallas engage in high-risk behaviors compared to HIV-negative Black MSM (54%). This discrepancy is potentially explained by the existing high prevalence of HIV among Black MSM (see Table 10-2. New HIV diagnoses in MSM by age group within race/ethnicity, 2015 ). Though White and Hispanic MSM seem to be engaging in riskier behavior, they may have less exposure to HIV in sexual networks consisting of other White and Hispanic MSM, among whom HIV prevalence is lower.

 


 

Table 8-2. HIV Risk Behaviors in HIV-Negative IDU, Dallas, 2012, Unweighted

IDU

Average
number of
sex partners
in the past
12 months*

Shared needle in past 12 months

Sharing of drug paraphernalia in past 12 months

Exchanged money or drugs for sex in past 12 months

Had condomless sex in the past 12 months

 

N

N

N

%

N

%

N

%

N

%

Race/Ethnicity

                   

 White

52

22

28

54%

35

67%

16

31%

13

25%

 Black

426

4

161

38%

288

68%

165

39%

212

50%

 Hispanic

13

12

5

38%

11

85%

11

85%

7

54%

 Other

15

2

8

53%

9

60%

6

40%

6

40%

Total

506

6

202

40%

343

68%

198

39%

238

47%

Age

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 0-14

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 15-24

4

6

3

75%

3

75%

1

25%

2

50%

 25-34

48

10

24

63%

29

76%

22

58%

14

37%

 35-44

54

24

26

48%

39

72%

28

52%

24

44%

 45+

410

3

149

36%

272

66%

147

36%

198

48%

Total

506

6

202

40%

343

68%

198

39%

238

47%

* This analysis excludes females who inject drugs who reported sex exclusively with other females

 

  • Among newly diagnosed people with HIV in Texas, 5% acquired their infection through injection drugs use (IDU). Forty-three percent of these diagnoses were in Black Texans and 38% were over 45 years of age (see Section 2. New HIV Diagnoses ). Comparatively, over 80% of HIV-negative Persons who Inject Drugs recruited for this Dallas-based survey were over the age of 45 and 84% were Black. Injecting substances increases the risk of HIV transmission through exposure to blood via sharing needles and equipment, and certain injectable drugs lower inhibition and increase the likelihood of engaging in high-risk sexual behavior. Findings from the NHBS survey show that among HIV-negative people who inject drugs in Dallas, a large proportion of respondents reported sharing needles (40%) or other injection equipment (68%), exchanging money or drugs for sex (39%), and having condomless sex (47%) all in the last 12 months. All of these activities are also risk factors for Hepatitis C and B infections, which can increase the chance of complications from existing HIV infection.

 


 

Table 8-3. HIV Risk Behaviors in HIV-Negative in High Risk Heterosexuals, Dallas, 2013, Unweighted

High Risk Heterosexuals*

Average number
of sex partners
of the opposite sex
in the past
12 months

Had condomless sex with a partner of the opposite sex in the past 12 months

Exchanged money or drugs for sex in past 12 months

Had condomless sex with an HIV-positive partner in the past 12 months

 

N

N

N

%

N

%

N

%

Race/Ethnicity

               

 White

22

5

12

55%

3

14%

83

59%

 Black

467

4

195

42%

103

22%

59

53%

 Hispanic

49

2

22

45%

3

6%

47

55%

 Other

7

6

4

57%

1

14%

20

77%

Total

545

3

233

43%

110

20%

211

57%

Age

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 0-14

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 15-24

107

3

49

46%

11

10%

0

0%

 25-34

164

3

57

35%

25

15%

0

0%

 35-44

93

4

43

46%

27

29%

0

0%

 45+

181

3

84

46%

47

26%

1

1%

Total

545

3

233

43%

110

20%

1

0%

* For HIV surveillance purposes, a high risk heterosexual is a male or female whose sexual partners are known to be HIV-infected or at high risk for HIV (partner has a history of sexual contact with bi-sexual male for females, exchanging money or drugs for sex, IDU, hemophiliacs, HIV+ transfusion recipients, or other HIV+ persons of unknown risk).

 

  • Findings from this survey showed that 43% of high-risk HIV-negative heterosexual participants reported having condomless sex with a partner of the opposite sex in the last 12 months. Twenty percent of those surveyed reported that they exchanged money or drugs for sex in the past 12 months.  Those over the age of 35 were more likely to report exchanging sex for money or drugs (29% of 35 to 44 year olds and 26% of those 45 or older).

  • Monitoring the risk behaviors of heterosexuals at high-risk for HIV is important because 22% of newly diagnosed people with HIV in 2015 in Texas reported acquiring HIV through heterosexual contact.  Blacks were over-represented in this survey as 85% of high-risk heterosexual respondents were Black. By comparison, a lower proportion (56%) of heterosexuals newly diagnosed with HIV in Texas were Black. These findings from Dallas may not be representative of HIV risk behaviors in all high-risk heterosexuals in Texas, especially high-risk Texans of other races.

 


Epi Profile

Table of Contents1. Executive Summary | 2. New HIV Diagnoses | 3. Persons Living with HIV | 4. Co-Morbidities | 5. HIV/AIDS Deaths | 6. HIV Incidence | 7. Targeted and Routine HIV Testing | 8. Indicators of HIV Risk in HIV-negative Persons at High Risk for HIV | 9. Indicators of HIV Risk in PLWH Currently in Care | 10. Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) | 11. HIV Treatment Cascade | Data Sources and Notes


Last updated March 6, 2017