• Contact Us

    Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention
    MC 1945
    PO Box 149347
    Austin, Texas 78714-9347

    Phone: 5127767111

    Email Comments or Questions

What is Asthma?

Asthma is a chronic (long-lasting or recurrent) inflammatory disease that affects your lungs. Asthma can cause wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness and coughing. During an asthma attack, the lungs become irritated and inflamed making it difficult to breathe. Over 479,000 (about 7 percent of) children in Texas have asthma.

What are the Symptoms of Asthma? 

Symptoms vary from person to person, ranging from mild to severe, and may occur often or rarely.  Some signs and symptoms include: 

  • Shortness of breath 
  • Rapid and difficult breathing 
  • Chest tightness or pain 
  • Coughing 
  • Trouble sleeping caused by shortness of breath, coughing or wheezing 
  • A whistling, wheezing, or rattling sound when exhaling 
  • Increased mucus production 

What Causes Asthma Symptoms?Asthma Triggers Image List 

It is not known why some people get asthma and others do not. Asthma may be cause by both environmental and genetic factors.  An asthma attack occurs when something bothers your lungs and causes a reaction. The lungs in people with asthma are sensitive and react to irritants or triggers. These triggers can bring on asthma symptoms and lead to an asthma attack.

For some people, asthma symptoms flare up in particular situations: 

  • During physical activity (exercise induced asthma), especially when the air outside is cold and dry. 
  • Exposure to irritants at school or work. This can include chemicals, gases, dust and other harmful substances.   
  • Allergies from pollen, molds, pet dander, trees and grasses, cockroaches and other substances. 
  • During an illness. This includes a upper respiratory virus, such as cold and flu, or sinus infection. 

What are Asthma Triggers?

Asthma triggers are things in the environment that a person with asthma could react to. These triggers can make it hard for them to breathe and lead to an asthma attack.   

Asthma triggers will vary from person to person, but can include:

Air Pollutants

  • Smoke
  • Sprays and Powders 
  • Ozone 
  • Particulate matter 
  • Chemical fumes 
  • Emissions from automobiles and trucks 


  • Pollen
  • Molds
  • Dust
  • Pet dander
  • Cockroaches
  • Dust mites 
  • Certain foods, beverages, or preservatives added to foods 
  • Certain medications 


  • Cold, dry air
  • Freezing temperatures 
  • High humidity 
  • Poor air quality 

Respiratory Infections

  • Common cold
  • Flu
  • Bronchitis 
  • Pneumonia 
  • Upper respiratory virus 

Physical and mental stress 

  • Strenuous exercising 
  • Emotional problems that can lead to hyperventilating 
  • Gastroesophageal reflux (GERD) 

How is Asthma Diagnosed? 

Only a healthcare professional can diagnose asthma. To diagnose asthma, a doctor will perform a medical exam and ask a series of questions about a person's health. Questions may include problems with breathing and family medical history. They may also ask about allergies, illnesses and things that make it harder to breathe.  During a physical exam the doctor will check the heart and lungs and may perform a lung function test.  

How is Asthma Managed? 

Asthma Management Goals Chart

People with controlled asthma can: 

  • Prevent on-going symptoms 
  • Reduce use of quick-relief medication 
  • Maintain breathing ability maintain normal activity levels.  

They can also reduce asthma attacks and prevent loss of lung function. 

Asthma can be managed by: 

  • Assessing asthma control 
  • Monitoring symptoms 
  • Taking medicines as directed 
  • Avoiding known asthma triggers 

Asthma Action Plans 

An asthma action plan is a tool to help self-manage asthma and is developed with the patient, caregiver and doctor. 

It provides guidance on: 

  • How to use medicines 
  • Asthma triggers to avoid 
  • How to respond to worsening symptoms 
  • When to call the doctor 
  • When to seek emergency care 

Sample Asthma Action Plans

American Lung Association (pdf)

American Lung Association – Spanish (pdf)

American Lung Association – For Home and School (pdf)

American Lung Association – For Home and School Spanish (pdf)

Kid Health’s 

South Texas Asthma Coalition (pdf)

South Texas Asthma Coalition - Spanish (pdf)

Healthy South Texas – English and Spanish (pdf)

Last updated March 1, 2021