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Medical and Research Library News - September 2019

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Training opportunities
Websites and reports on trending topics*
Journal articles of note*
New books at the MRL* 

September 2019

mrl-diamondTraining opportunities

Note: The following webinars and online classes are not affiliated with DSHS or the DSHS Library. They are presented here as opportunities to learn more information of interest to public health personnel. All times listed are in Central Daylight Time.

September 5, 2019; 11:30 a.m.–1 p.m. Ebola in Zaire, 1976: The Past as Prologue. Join this Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) webcast to hear a remarkable story of how disease detectives discovered the Ebola virus and how our understanding of it has grown with subsequent outbreaks over the past 40 years. https://www.cdc.gov/od/science/wewerethere/ebola/index.html

September 10, 2019; 12–1 p.m. Preventing Drug Overdoses: Addressing Risk Factors for Overdoses. The safest way to prevent a drug overdose from becoming fatal is by preventing the overdose from occurring at all. This webinar will overview upstream prevention strategies intended to address underlying risk factors for overdoses and reach the populations most vulnerable to experiencing them. This includes engaging in standard substance use prevention and understanding the many connections between substance use and overdose prevention. Presented by the Prevention Technology Transfer Center Network (PTCC). https://pttcnetwork.org/centers/central-east-pttc/pttc-regional-conference-series-preventing-drug-overdoses-part-4-4

September 12, 2019; 1—2 p.m. Improving Linkage and Retention in HIV Care: Lessons from Implementing CHW Programs. In this webinar, participants will hear the lessons learned and best practices for implementing a Community Health Worker (CHW) program in HIV care, beginning with the roles and skills that CHWs need to be effective in their work. Presenters will discuss the role of the CHW on the care team and share lessons learned from a 3-year initiative on topics such as establishing program systems and infrastructure, hiring, training, job retention, and supervision. Sponsored by Boston University. https://bostonu.zoom.us/webinar/register/c596e153c3629a9834538d7d4481ef37

September 16, 2019; 12:30-2:00 p.m. Challenging Trends of Mental Health Disorders in Children and Youth. This virtual workshop is part of a series that is co-organized by the MCH Life Course Intervention Research Network and the National Academies' Forum for Children's Well-Being. The series will focus on understanding how mental health disorders develop over the lifespan, with a special emphasis on prenatal, early, middle, and later childhood. This series will focus on identifying gaps in our knowledge, exploring new strategies for using existing data to enhance our understanding of the developmental origins of mental disorders, reviewing potential approaches to prevention and optimization, and proposing new ways of framing how we understand, address, and prevent these disorders from a life course development perspective. https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScN6VfwwkGUyEgW_lvcfasLQevAxZ_Aka_mo6Qbu0oPT3HQNw/viewform

September 18, 2019; 11 a.m.–12 p.m. Vaccine Education Webinar. The Vaccine Education Center (VEC) at Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, together with the Pennsylvania chapter of the American Academy of Pediatrics, will present a webinar covering:
• HPV vaccine for 27- to 45-year-olds: Routine recommendation?
• PCV13 vaccine for older adults: Is it making a difference?
• Influenza vaccine: A rough year
• Meningococcal B vaccine: When do you need a booster dose?

September 19, 2019; 12–1 p.m. A Critical Connection: The Water and Healthcare/Public Health Sectors. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is sponsoring this free webinar on the interdependencies between the water and healthcare/public health sectors. The webinar will feature the lessons learned from a series of eight workshops conducted nationally from 2016 to 2018. https://horsleywittenevents.webex.com/mw3300/mywebex/default.donomenu=true&siteurl=

September 25, 2019; 10–11 a.m. Integrating Social Care into the Delivery of Health Care. Join this webinar on the release of the new National Academies report, Integrating Social Care into the Delivery of Health Care: Moving Upstream to Improve the Nation’s Health. The webinar will include an overview of the report and discussion of the report’s findings, recommendations, and key messages. https://www.eventbrite.com/e/release-integrating-social-care-into-the-delivery-of-health-care-tickets-69756408295

mrl-diamondWebsites and reports on trending topics*

Deaths, Dollars, and Diverted Resources: Examining the Heavy Price of the Opioid Epidemic - The articles in this supplemental issue of the American Journal of Managed Care delve deeply into the question of the costs of the opioid epidemic to the nation, particularly at the state level. https://www.ajmc.com/journals/supplement/2019/deaths-dollars-diverted-resources-opioid-epidemic

Diving into the Data: How Many Americans Die Prematurely from Treatable Causes? – This brief from the Commonwealth Fund examines one of the causes of declining life expectancy — premature deaths from treatable causes, also known as mortality amenable to health care. https://www.commonwealthfund.org/blog/2019/americans-die-prematurely-treatable-causes

Health Informatics and Health Equity: Improving Our Reach and Impact, August-September 2019 - This open-access special issue of the Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association features 23 articles highlighting health informatics research that focuses on marginalized and underserved groups, health disparities and health equity. https://academic.oup.com/jamia/issue/26/8-9 

The Message of Measles - As public-health officials confront the largest outbreak in the U.S. in decades, they’ve been fighting as much against dangerous ideas as they have against the disease. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2019/09/02/the-message-of-measles

mrl-diamondJournal articles of note*

Benjamin RH, Littlejohn S, Canfield MA, Ethen MK, Hua F, Mitchell LE. Interpregnancy change in body mass index and infant outcomes in Texas: a population-based study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2019 Apr 5;19(1):119. doi: 10.1186/s12884-019-2265-z.
BACKGROUND: Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) is associated with several infant outcomes, but it is unclear whether these associations reflect causal relationships. We conducted a study of interpregnancy change in BMI (IPC-BMI) to improve understanding of the associations between BMI and large for gestational age (LGA), small for gestational age (SGA), and preterm birth (PTB).
METHODS: Birth certificate data from 2481 linked sibling pairs (Texas, 2005-2012) were used to estimate IPC-BMI and evaluate its association with LGA, SGA, and PTB in the younger sibling of the pair. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using data from the full sample and within strata defined by pre-pregnancy BMI for the older sibling.
RESULTS: On average, women gained 1.1 BMI units between pregnancies. In the full sample, interpregnancy BMI decreases were associated with reduced odds of LGA and increased odds of SGA and PTB (IPC-BMI < -1 versus 0 to < 1: LGA aOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4, 1.1; SGA aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.0, 2.7; PTB aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3, 2.8). In stratified analyses, similar associations were observed in some, but not all, strata. Findings for interpregnancy BMI increases were less consistent, with little evidence for associations between these outcomes and the most extreme IPC-BMI increases.
CONCLUSIONS: There is growing evidence that interpregnancy BMI decreases are associated with LGA, SGA, and PTB. However, taken as a whole, the literature provides insufficient evidence to establish causal links between maternal BMI and these outcomes.

Collins B, Kypridemos C, Pearson-Stuttard J, et al. FDA sodium reduction targets and the food industry: are there incentives to reformulate? Microsimulation cost-effectiveness analysis. Milbank Q. 2019 Jul 22. doi: 10.1111/1468-0009.12402. [Epub ahead of print]
The World Health Organization has recommended sodium reduction as a "best buy" to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite this, Congress has temporarily blocked the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) from implementing voluntary industry targets for sodium reduction in processed foods, the implementation of which could cost the industry around $16 billion over 10 years. We modeled the health and economic impact of meeting the two-year and ten-year FDA targets, from the perspective of people working in the food system itself, over 20 years, from 2017 to 2036. Benefits of implementing the FDA voluntary sodium targets extend to food companies and food system workers, and the value of CVD-related health gains and cost savings are together greater than the government and industry costs of reformulation.
CONTEXT: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) set draft voluntary targets to reduce sodium levels in processed foods. We aimed to determine cost effectiveness of meeting these draft sodium targets, from the perspective of US food system workers.
METHODS: We employed a microsimulation cost-effectiveness analysis using the US IMPACT Food Policy model with two scenarios: (1) short term, achieving two-year FDA reformulation targets only, and (2) long term, achieving 10-year FDA reformulation targets. We modeled four close-to-reality populations: food system "ever" workers; food system "current" workers in 2017; and subsets of processed food "ever" and "current" workers. Outcomes included cardiovascular disease cases prevented and postponed as well as incremental cost-effectiveness ratio per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained from 2017 to 2036.
FINDINGS: Among food system ever workers, achieving long-term sodium reduction targets could produce 20-year health gains of approximately 180,000 QALYs (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 150,000 to 209,000) and health cost savings of approximately $5.2 billion (95% UI: $3.5 billion to $8.3 billion), with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $62,000 (95% UI: $1,000 to $171,000) per QALY gained. For the subset of processed food industry workers, health gains would be approximately 32,000 QALYs (95% UI: 27,000 to 37,000); cost savings, $1.0 billion (95% UI: $0.7bn to $1.6bn); and ICER, $486,000 (95% UI: $148,000 to $1,094,000) per QALY gained. Because many health benefits may occur in individuals older than 65 or the uninsured, these health savings would be shared among individuals, industry, and government.
CONCLUSIONS: The benefits of implementing the FDA voluntary sodium targets extend to food companies and food system workers, with the value of health gains and health care cost savings outweighing the costs of reformulation, although not for the processed food industry.

Frankenfeld CL, Leslie TF. County-level socioeconomic factors and residential racial, Hispanic, poverty, and unemployment segregation associated with drug overdose deaths in the United States, 2013-2017. Ann Epidemiol. 2019 Jul;35:12-19. doi: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2019.04.009. Epub 2019 Apr 30.
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to evaluate overdose death rates in relation to socioeconomic characteristics and measures of socioeconomic residential segregation at substate geography.
METHODS: County overdose deaths were linked to socioeconomic characteristics that are related to social vulnerability. Dissimilarity and isolation segregation (comparing individual counties to the adjacent counties and state) and diversity were calculated for race, Hispanic ethnicity, poverty, and unemployment. Negative binomial regression was used to compare county characteristics to death rates.
RESULTS: Percent civilian disabled was positively associated with mortality across race and Hispanic ethnicity groups. Some discordant associations included racial and unemployment diversity (null for White, inverse for Hispanic and Black), percent unemployment (positive for White, inverse for Hispanic), percent crowded housing (positive for Black), uninsured (null for White, inverse for Black and Hispanic), and per capita income (positive for Black, inverse for Hispanic). Several residential segregation measures were also significantly associated with overdose death rates, and different magnitudes and directions of associations were observed by race and Hispanic ethnicity.
CONCLUSIONS: These results provide future directions, including roles of civilian disability, diversity, and evaluating differential impacts of segregation across racial and ethnic groups. Individual-level data, drug overdose incidence, or larger studies to evaluate interactions may help to elucidate mechanisms.

Himmelstein MS, Puhl RM, Watson RJ. Weight-based victimization, eating behaviors, and weight-related health in sexual and gender minority adolescents. Appetite. 2019 Oct 1;141:104321. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2019.104321. Epub 2019 Jun 13.
Weight-based victimization (WBV) is a common form of bullying associated with maladaptive eating, and poor weight-related health. Although sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth experience a number of eating and weight-related health disparities, the link between WBV and these outcomes has not been investigated in this vulnerable population. Data came from the LGBTQ Teen Study, a national survey of SGM adolescents. Participants provided data to assess body mass index (BMI), WBV, sexual identity, gender identity, dieting, binge eating, eating to cope with stress, weight control behaviors, exercise, and stress (N = 9679). The sample was 66% White, with a mean age of 15.6 years; 58.5% had healthy weight, and 37.2% had overweight or obesity. Over half of participants reported WBV from family members and peers. WBV from family members was associated with maladaptive eating (i.e., binge-eating, unhealthy weight-control behaviors), dieting, and poor weight-related health (i.e., stress, exercise avoidance, less physical activity and poorer sleep); relationships remained significant after accounting for participants' age, BMI percentile for age and sex, race, gender identity, and sexual identity. Higher frequency of WBV at school, but not history of peer weight-based victimization, was associated with more maladaptive eating, dieting, and poorer weight-related health on all outcomes except physical activity. This is the first large-scale study that examined links between WBV, maladaptive eating behaviors, and weight-related health in SGM adolescents. These results suggest the need for increased awareness that WBV may play a role in maladaptive eating, and weight-related health of SGM youth, and may contribute to both elevated levels of eating disorders and obesity in this population.

Horney JA, Rios J, Cantu A, et al. Improving Hurricane Harvey disaster research response through academic-practice partnerships. Am J Public Health. 2019 Sep;109(9):1198-1201. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2019.305166. Epub 2019 Jul 18.
After Hurricane Harvey, researchers, media, and public health agencies collected data in Houston, Texas, to assess potential health effects and inform the public. To limit redundancy and ensure sampling coverage of impacted areas, research and practice partners used disaster research response (DR2) resources and relied on partnerships formed during a 2015 DR2 workshop in Houston. Improved coordination after the disaster can improve the effectiveness and efficiency of DR2 and enable the use of data to improve recovery and preparedness for future disasters.

Johnson KE, Sales A, Rew L, Haussler Garing J, Crosnoe R. Using polytomous latent class analysis to compare patterns of substance use and co-occurring health-risk behaviors between students in alternative and mainstream high schools. J Adolesc. 2019 Aug;75:151-162. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2019.07.010. Epub 2019 Aug 6.
INTRODUCTION: Alternative high school (AHS) students, an understudied and underserved population, experience educational, social, and health disparities relative to students in mainstream high schools. Disparities in single types of substance use are particularly high, yet no known studies have compared patterns of substance use or relationships between these patterns and other health-risk behaviors between AHS and mainstream high schools.
METHODS: Using data from the Texas Alternative School Health Survey (n = 515; mean age 17.1 years, 49% male, 59% Hispanic, 23% White, 15% Black) and the Texas Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 2,113; mean age 16 years, 47% male, 64% Hispanic, 22% White, 7% Black), we used latent class analyses to compare patterns of substance use in AHSs and mainstream high schools. We used latent class regression to examine relationships between patterns of substance use and involvement in other health-risk behaviors in each school setting.
RESULTS: Students in AHSs and mainstream high schools had similar patterns of substance use, and youth in higher risk categories engaged in higher levels of other health-risk behaviors. A substantially greater proportion of AHS students, however, fell into the moderate and high use categories, in support of continuing disparities for AHS students.
CONCLUSIONS: Additional support is needed in AHSs to address the prevalence of high-risk patterns of substance use and associated health-risk behaviors. For example, ongoing public health surveillance is needed in AHSs, just as is done in mainstream high schools, to monitor trends in substance use and impact of policies and interventions.

Meites E, Szilagyi PG, Chesson HW, Unger ER, Romero JR, Markowitz LE. Human papillomavirus vaccination for adults: updated recommendations of the advisory committee on immunization practices. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019 Aug 16;68(32):698-702. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6832a3.
Vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) is recommended to prevent new HPV infections and HPV-associated diseases, including some cancers. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)* routinely recommends HPV vaccination at age 11 or 12 years; vaccination can be given starting at age 9 years. Catch-up vaccination has been recommended since 2006 for females through age 26 years, and since 2011 for males through age 21 years and certain special populations through age 26 years. This report updates ACIP catch-up HPV vaccination recommendations and guidance published in 2014, 2015, and 2016 (1-3). Routine recommendations for vaccination of adolescents have not changed. In June 2019, ACIP recommended catch-up HPV vaccination for all persons through age 26 years. ACIP did not recommend catch-up vaccination for all adults aged 27 through 45 years, but recognized that some persons who are not adequately vaccinated might be at risk for new HPV infection and might benefit from vaccination in this age range; therefore, ACIP recommended shared clinical decision-making regarding potential HPV vaccination for these persons.

mrl-diamondNew books at the MRL*

1. Connecting through talk : nurturing children's development with language by Debbie Troklus.
2. Does time heal all? : exploring mental health in the first 3 years by Miri Keren.
3. Emotional judo : communication skills to handle difficult conversations and boost emotional intelligence by Tim Higgs.
4. Health behavior : theory, research and practice.
5. Smarter faster better : the transformative power of real productivity by Charles Duhigg.

*Employees may email the Medical and Research Library at library@dshs.texas.gov, call 512-776-7559, or visit Moreton Building, 1100 W. 49th St., Room M-652, Austin, TX, 78756 to borrow library materials, receive research assistance, learn to access electronic materials, or to obtain full-text of the articles mentioned in this month's news. If you are not located on the main campus in Austin, simply let us know what you would like to borrow, and we will mail it to you.

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Last updated September 5, 2019