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Medical and Research Library News - November 2019

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Training opportunities
Websites and reports on trending topics*
Journal articles of note*

November 2019

mrl-diamondTraining opportunities

Note: The following webinars and online classes are not affiliated with DSHS or the DSHS Library. They are presented here as opportunities to learn more information of interest to public health personnel. All times listed are in Central Daylight Time.

November 4, 2019; 11 a.m.-12 p.m. Advancing HIV Screening and Treatment: A Health Center’s Experience. This webinar will discuss approaches to providing screening, comprehensive care, and treatment to people living with HIV. The webinar will cover the roles of health centers and free clinics in HIV diagnosis, prevention, and early treatment; practical strategies for making HIV screening and early treatment programs operational in health centers and free clinics; and potential challenges encountered, and lessons learned. Presented by Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA). https://ecri.zoom.us/webinar/register/WN_qvKE9mBfTwGSFElZ09HCNg

November 8, 2019; 1-2:30 p.m. Norovirus: Just-In Time Refresher for Retail Food Industry and Regulators. Winter is coming, and that means norovirus associated with retail food establishments. This webinar will cover norovirus 101 and why it is often associated with retail food establishment outbreaks, prevention strategies for norovirus, and best practices in norovirus investigation. Presented by Association of Food and Drug Officials (AFDO). https://register.gotowebinar.com/register/1640384888203309323

November 12, 2019; 12-1 p.m. Introduction to Design Thinking. This webinar will provide an overview of the design thinking process and how it can be used by public health departments. The process is human-centered and for use when there is no obvious solution. The session will also introduce the formation of a challenge statement and how to get at the real problem. Presented by The Public Health National Center for Innovations (PHNCI). https://register.gotowebinar.com/register/6303641300486732557

November 13, 2019; 1-2:30 p.m. Health in Rural America: Innovative Solutions to Address Disparities. This webinar from The National Institute for Health Care Management (NIHCM) Foundation will explore the current rural health landscape and federal strategies to improve rural health; innovative initiatives to respond to unmet social needs, address provider shortages and expand telehealth in Arkansas and Texas; and the impact of rurality on maternal and child health and approaches to managing access issues. https://www.nihcm.org/events/upcoming-events/event/health-in-rural-america

November 18, 2019; 12-1 p.m. Writing for Reach: Communicating Scholarly Results to General Audiences. Attend this webinar to understand the utility of communicating scholarly results to general audiences, improve reaching and writing for a lay audience to more effectively communicate research, and more effectively draft the beginning of an evidence-based article for a mainstream audience. Presented by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs - Health Services Research & Development (HSR&D). https://register.gotowebinar.com/register/8391000353830708737

November 21, 2019; 1-2 p.m. Using Data to Improve Asthma Control: Asthma Quality Measures. This webinar from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services will focus on how states can use asthma quality measures and other data to drive asthma quality improvement activities. Presenters will identify measures related to key drivers of asthma control, demonstrate how states can use data to identify target project areas, and lead a discussion on the various uses of asthma quality measures including quality improvement, performance monitoring, and public health surveillance. https://mathematica.webex.com/ec3300/eventcenter/enroll/join.doconfId=140296131675434569&the

mrl-diamond(1)Websites and reports on trending topics*

A New Portrait of Rural America - This report uses unique community typologies as well as data and on-the-ground reporting to explore differences and blow up the mythology of rural America. From the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF). https://www.americancommunities.org/report/rural-report/

Collaborating for Equity & Justice - This special supplement of Health Education & Behavior documents powerful uses of community organizing to drive social change and address health disparities in vulnerable populations. The open access supplement features 12 articles, including six case studies of engaging populations that have experienced decades of oppression, and details characteristics of authentic partnerships that can catalyze community-driven, equitable change. https://journals.sagepub.com/toc/hebc/46/1_suppl

Empowering 8 Billion Minds: Enabling Better Mental Health for All via the Ethical Adoption of Technologies - This report by the Global Future Council on Neurotechnologies explores the evolving application of technology in mental healthcare and considers the ethical considerations that surround its use. https://nam.edu/empowering-8-billion-minds-enabling-better-mental-health-for-all-via-the-ethical-adoption-of-technologies/

Exploring Multigenerational Approaches to Fostering Children's Health and Well-Being: The Opioid Crisis as a Case Study: Proceedings of a Workshop -Proceedings from a June 2019 workshop to explore multigenerational approaches and policy strategies to promote health and well-being, using the opioid crisis as a case study. From the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM). https://www.nap.edu/catalog/25574/exploring-multigenerational-approaches-to-fostering-childrens-health-and-well-being

Helping People with Serious Mental Illness and Substance Use Disorder During Disasters - This double issue of The Dialogue focuses on assisting disaster survivors with serious mental illness and/or substance use disorders after a disaster. From Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). https://www.samhsa.gov/sites/default/files/dtac/dialogue-vol-15-issue-3-4.pdf

Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2018 - Combined cases of syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia reached an all-time high in the United States in 2018, according to the annual Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance Report just released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). https://www.cdc.gov/std/stats18/default.htm

mrl-diamondJournal articles of note*

Ferdinands JM, Gaglani M, Martin ET, et al. Hospitalization among adults in the United States, 2015-2016: results from the US Hospitalized Adult Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network (HAIVEN). J Infect Dis. 2019 Sep 13;220(8):1265-1275. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiy723.
BACKGROUND: Evidence establishing effectiveness of influenza vaccination for prevention of severe illness is limited. The US Hospitalized Adult Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network (HAIVEN) is a multi-year test-negative case-control study initiated in 2015-2016 to estimate effectiveness of vaccine in preventing influenza hospitalization among adults.
METHODS: Adults aged ≥18 years admitted to 8 US hospitals with acute respiratory illness and testing positive for influenza by polymerase chain reaction were cases; those testing negative were controls. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated with logistic regression adjusting for age, comorbidities, and other confounding factors and stratified by frailty, 2-year vaccination history, and clinical presentation.
RESULTS: We analyzed data from 236 cases and 1231 controls; mean age was 58 years. More than 90% of patients had ≥1 comorbidity elevating risk of influenza complications. Fifty percent of cases and 70% of controls were vaccinated. Vaccination was 51% (95% confidence interval [CI], 29%-65%) and 53% (95% CI, 11%-76%) effective in preventing hospitalization due to influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and influenza B virus infection, respectively. Vaccine was protective for all age groups.
CONCLUSIONS: During the 2015-2016 US influenza A(H1N1)pdm09-predominant season, we found that vaccination halved the risk of influenza-association hospitalization among adults, most of whom were at increased risk of serious influenza complications due to comorbidity or age.

M Fowler EF, Baum LM1, Jesch E, et al. Issues relevant to population health in political advertising in the United States, 2011-2012 and 2015-2016. Milbank Q. 2019 Oct 24. doi: 10.1111/1468-0009.12427. [Epub ahead of print]
Policy Points Political advertising can influence which issues are public policy priorities. Population health-relevant issues were frequently referenced in televised political advertising in the 2011-2012 and 2015-2016 US election cycles, with about one-fourth of all ads aired mentioning traditional public health and health policy topics and more than half referencing broader determinants of population health. The volume of population health-relevant issues referenced in political ads varied by geography, political office, political party, and election cycle. Ads referencing broader determinants of population health (such as employment, education, or gender equality) rarely tied these determinants directly to health outcomes.
CONTEXT: Political discourse is one way that policymakers and candidates for public office discuss societal problems, propose solutions, and articulate actionable policies that might improve population health. Yet we know little about how politicians define and discuss issues relevant to population health in their major source of electoral communication, campaign advertisements. This study examined the prevalence of references to population health-relevant issues conveyed in campaign advertising for political office at all levels of government in the United States in 2011-2012 and 2015-2016. Understanding advertising as part of the political discourse on topics of relevance to population health yields insights about political agenda-setting and can inform efforts to shape opinion.
METHODS: We conducted a content analysis of all English-language, candidate-related campaign advertisements aired on local broadcast, national network, and national cable television in the 2011-2012 and 2015-2016 election cycles (3,980,457 and 3,767,477 airings, respectively). We analyzed the volume of coverage in these ads about issues relevant to population health, including narrowly defined public health issues as well as a broad range of other social, economic, and environmental factors that affect population health.
FINDINGS: Across both election cycles and all electoral races, 26% of campaign advertising discussed issues relevant for the narrowly defined conceptualization of public health and 57% discussed issues pertinent to topics within the more expansive population health conceptualization. There was substantial variation in population health-related content in ads across election cycles, by level of political office, political party, and geographic area. Geographic variation indicates that where a person lives affects their potential exposure to political communication about various health-related topics.
CONCLUSIONS: Political campaign ads in the United States frequently referenced population health-relevant content at all levels of government, although the ads rarely connected population health-relevant issues to health. Variation in volume and content of these references likely shaped public opinion and the public will to address population health-related policy.

Gomes-Solecki M, Arnaboldi PM, Backenson PB, et al. Protective immunity and new vaccines for Lyme disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2019 Oct 17. pii: ciz872. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciz872. [Epub ahead of print]
Lyme disease, caused by some Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, is the most common tick-borne illness in the Northern Hemisphere and the number of cases, and geographic spread, continue to grow. Previously identified B. burgdorferi proteins, lipid immunogens, and live mutants lead the design of canonical vaccines aimed at disrupting infection in the host. Discovery of the mechanism of action of the first vaccine catalyzed the development of new strategies to control Lyme disease that bypassed direct vaccination of the human host. Thus, novel prevention concepts center on proteins produced by B. burgdorferi during tick transit and on tick proteins that mediate feeding and pathogen transmission. A burgeoning area of research is tick immunity as it can unlock mechanistic pathways that could be targeted for disruption. Studies that shed light on the mammalian immune pathways engaged during tick-transmitted B. burgdorferi infection would further development of vaccination strategies against Lyme disease.

Li R, Perrine CG, Anstey EH, Chen J, MacGowan CA, Elam-Evans LD. Breastfeeding trends by race/ethnicity among US children born from 2009 to 2015. JAMA Pediatr. 2019 Oct 14:e193319. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.3319. [Epub ahead of print]
IMPORTANCE: Large racial/ethnic disparities in breastfeeding are associated with adverse health outcomes.
OBJECTIVES: To examine breastfeeding trends by race/ethnicity from 2009 to 2015 and changes in breastfeeding gaps comparing racial/ethnic subgroups with white infants from 2009-2010 to 2014-2015.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This study used data from 167,842 infants from the National Immunization Survey-Child (NIS-Child), a random-digit-dialed telephone survey among a complex, stratified, multistage probability sample of US households with children aged 19 to 35 months at the time of the survey. This study analyzed data collected from January 1, 2011, through December 31, 2017, for children born between 2009 and 2015.
EXPOSURES: Child's race/ethnicity categorized as Hispanic or non-Hispanic white, black, Asian, or American Indian or Alaskan Native.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Breastfeeding rates, including ever breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding through 6 months, and continuation of breastfeeding at 12 months.
RESULTS: This study included 167,842 infants (mean [SD] age, 2.33 [0.45] years; 86,321 [51.4%] male and 81,521 [48.6%] female). Overall unadjusted breastfeeding rates increased from 2009 to 2015 by 7.1 percentage points for initiation, 9.2 percentage points for exclusivity, and 11.3 percentage points for duration, with considerable variation by race/ethnicity. Most racial/ethnic groups had significant increases in breastfeeding rates. From 2009-2010 to 2014-2015, disparities in adjusted breastfeeding rates became larger between black and white infants. For example, the difference for exclusive breastfeeding through 6 months between black and white infants widened from 0.5 to 4.5 percentage points with a 4.0% difference in difference (P < .001) from 2009-2010 to 2014-2015. In contrast, the breastfeeding differences between Hispanic, Asian, and American Indian or Alaskan Native infants and white infants became smaller or stayed the same except for continued breastfeeding at 12 months among Asians. For example, the difference in continued breastfeeding at 12 months between Hispanic and white infants decreased from 7.8 to 3.8 percentage points between 2 periods, yielding a -4.0% difference in difference (P < .001). Because of 
positive trends among all race/ethnicities, these reduced differences were likely associated with greater increases among white infants throughout the study years.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Despite breastfeeding improvements among each race/ethnicity group, breastfeeding disparities between black and white infants became larger when breastfeeding improvements decreased even further among black infants in 2014-2015. The reduced breastfeeding gaps among all other nonwhite groups may be associated with greater increases among white infants. More efforts appear to be needed to improve breastfeeding rates among black infants.

Seither R, Loretan C, Driver K, Mellerson JL, Knighton CL, Black CL. Vaccination coverage with selected vaccines and exemption rates among children in kindergarten - United States, 2018-19 school year. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019 Oct 18;68(41):905-912. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6841e1.
State and local school vaccination requirements exist to ensure that students are protected against vaccine-preventable diseases (1). This report summarizes data collected by state and local immunization programs on vaccination coverage among children in kindergarten in 49 states, exemptions for kindergartners in 50 states, and provisional enrollment and grace period status for kindergartners in 30 states. Nationally, vaccination coverage was 94.9% for the state-required number of doses of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP); 94.7% for 2 doses of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR); and 94.8% for the state-required doses of varicella vaccine. Whereas 2.5% of kindergartners had an exemption from at least one vaccine, § 2.8% of kindergartners were not up to date for MMR and did not have a vaccine exemption. Nearly all states could achieve the recommended ≥95% MMR coverage if all nonexempt kindergartners were vaccinated in accordance with local and state vaccination policies.

*Employees may email the Medical and Research Library at library@dshs.texas.gov, call 512-776-7559, or visit Moreton Building, 1100 W. 49th St., Room M-652, Austin, TX, 78756 to borrow library materials, receive research assistance, learn to access electronic materials, or to obtain full-text of the articles mentioned in this month's news. If you are not located on the main campus in Austin, simply let us know what you would like to borrow, and we will mail it to you.

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Last updated November 15, 2019